Bug Tracker

Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracFastCgi


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Timestamp:
Oct 12, 2010, 2:07:28 PM (9 years ago)
Author:
trac
Comment:

--

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  • TracFastCgi

    v1 v1  
     1= Trac with FastCGI =
     2
     3[http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request. However, unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], i.e. run with different permissions than web server. Additionally, it is supported by much wider variety of web servers.
     4
     5'''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FastCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, you may want to try [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP].
     6
     7== Simple Apache configuration ==
     8
     9There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and
     10`mod_fcgid` (preferred). The latter is more up-to-date.
     11
     12==== setup with `mod_fastcgi` ====
     13`mod_fastcgi` uses `FastCgiIpcDir` and `FastCgiConfig` directives that should be added to an appropriate Apache configuration file:
     14{{{
     15# Enable fastcgi for .fcgi files
     16# (If you're using a distro package for mod_fcgi, something like
     17# this is probably already present)
     18<IfModule mod_fastcgi.c>
     19   AddHandler fastcgi-script .fcgi
     20   FastCgiIpcDir /var/lib/apache2/fastcgi
     21</IfModule>
     22LoadModule fastcgi_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_fastcgi.so
     23}}}
     24Setting `FastCgiIpcDir` is optional if the default is suitable. Note that the `LoadModule` line must be after the `IfModule` group.
     25
     26Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but
     27calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
     28
     29You can set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
     30{{{
     31FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV=/path/to/env/trac
     32}}}
     33
     34Or you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory like:
     35{{{
     36FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR=/parent/dir/of/projects
     37}}}
     38
     39==== setup with `mod_fcgid` ====
     40Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi`
     41instead of `trac.cgi`. Note that slash at the end - it is important.
     42{{{
     43ScriptAlias /trac /path/to/www/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
     44}}}
     45
     46To setup Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use
     47`DefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or
     48`Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try
     49alternative environment setup below.
     50
     51{{{
     52DefaultInitEnv TRAC_ENV /path/to/env/trac/
     53}}}
     54
     55==== alternative environment setup ====
     56A better method to specify path to Trac environment it to embed the path
     57into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of server
     58environment variables, works for both FastCgi modules
     59(and for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI as well):
     60{{{
     61import os
     62os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = "/path/to/projectenv"
     63}}}
     64or
     65{{{
     66import os
     67os.environ['TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR'] = "/path/to/project/parent/dir"
     68}}}
     69
     70With this method different projects can be supported by using different
     71`.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`.
     72
     73See [https://coderanger.net/~coderanger/httpd/fcgi_example.conf this fcgid example config] which uses a !ScriptAlias directive with trac.fcgi with a trailing / like this:
     74{{{
     75ScriptAlias / /srv/tracsite/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
     76}}}
     77
     78== Simple Cherokee Configuration ==
     79
     80The configuration on Cherokee's side is quite simple. You will only need to know that you can spawn Trac as an SCGI process.
     81You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down.
     82First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter.
     83
     84{{{
     85Host:
     86localhost:4433
     87
     88Interpreter:
     89/usr/bin/tracd —single-env —daemonize —protocol=scgi —hostname=localhost —port=4433 /path/to/project/
     90}}}
     91
     92If the port was not reachable, the interpreter command would be launched. Note that, in the definition of the information source, you will have to manually launch the spawner if you use a ''Remote host'' as ''Information source'' instead of a ''Local interpreter''.
     93
     94After doing this, we will just have to create a new rule managed by the SCGI handler to access Trac. It can be created in a new virtual server, trac.example.net for instance, and will only need two rules. The '''default''' one will use the SCGI handler associated to the previously created information source.
     95The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/chrome/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''/usr/share/trac/htdocs/''
     96
     97== Simple Lighttpd Configuration ==
     98
     99The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd].
     100
     101lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance
     102environments.  It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
     103
     104For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
     105{{{
     106#var.fcgi_binary="/usr/bin/python /path/to/fcgi_frontend.py" # 0.11 if installed with easy_setup, it is inside the egg directory
     107var.fcgi_binary="/path/to/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi" # 0.10 name of prior fcgi executable
     108fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     109   
     110                   ("trac" =>
     111                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
     112                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     113                      "check-local" => "disable",
     114                      "bin-environment" =>
     115                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv")
     116                     )
     117                   )
     118                 )
     119}}}
     120
     121Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above,
     122and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf`
     123using `bin-environment` (as in the section above on Apache configuration).
     124
     125Note that lighttpd has a bug related to 'SCRIPT_NAME' and 'PATH_INFO' when the uri of fastcgi.server is '/' instead of '/trac' in this example, see #Trac2418. This should be fixed since lighttpd 1.4.23, and you may need to add `"fix-root-scriptname" => "enable"` as parameter of fastcgi.server.
     126
     127For using two projects with lighttpd add the following to your `lighttpd.conf`:
     128{{{
     129fastcgi.server = ("/first" =>
     130                   ("first" =>
     131                    ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi-first.sock",
     132                     "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     133                     "check-local" => "disable",
     134                     "bin-environment" =>
     135                       ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv-first")
     136                    )
     137                  ),
     138                  "/second" =>
     139                    ("second" =>
     140                    ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi-second.sock",
     141                     "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     142                     "check-local" => "disable",
     143                     "bin-environment" =>
     144                       ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv-second")
     145                    )
     146                  )
     147                )
     148}}}
     149Note that field values are different.  If you prefer setting the environment
     150variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, e.g., to
     151`first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
     152Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even
     153if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
     154{{{
     155#!div class=important
     156'''Note''' It's very important the order on which server.modules are loaded, if mod_auth is not loaded '''BEFORE''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
     157}}}
     158For authentication you should enable mod_auth in lighttpd.conf 'server.modules', select auth.backend and auth rules:
     159{{{
     160server.modules              = (
     161...
     162  "mod_auth",
     163...
     164)
     165
     166auth.backend               = "htpasswd"
     167
     168# Separated password files for each project
     169# See "Conditional Configuration" in
     170# http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/file/branches/lighttpd-merge-1.4.x/doc/configuration.txt
     171
     172$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/first/" {
     173  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/projenv-first/htpasswd.htaccess"
     174}
     175$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/second/" {
     176  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/projenv-second/htpasswd.htaccess"
     177}
     178
     179# Enable auth on trac URLs, see
     180# http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/file/branches/lighttpd-merge-1.4.x/doc/authentication.txt
     181
     182auth.require = ("/first/login" =>
     183                ("method"  => "basic",
     184                 "realm"   => "First project",
     185                 "require" => "valid-user"
     186                ),
     187                "/second/login" =>
     188                ("method"  => "basic",
     189                 "realm"   => "Second project",
     190                 "require" => "valid-user"
     191                )
     192               )
     193
     194
     195}}}
     196Note that lighttpd (I use version 1.4.3) stopped if password file doesn't exist.
     197
     198Note that lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
     199
     200Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, i.e. serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
     201{{{
     202# Aliasing functionality is needed
     203server.modules += ("mod_alias")
     204
     205# Setup an alias for the static resources
     206alias.url = ("/trac/chrome/common" => "/usr/share/trac/htdocs")
     207
     208# Use negative lookahead, matching all requests that ask for any resource under /trac, EXCEPT in
     209# /trac/chrome/common, and use FastCGI for those
     210$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/trac(?!/chrome/common)" {
     211# Even if you have other fastcgi.server declarations for applications other than Trac, do NOT use += here
     212fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     213                   ("trac" =>
     214                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
     215                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     216                      "check-local" => "disable",
     217                      "bin-environment" =>
     218                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv")
     219                     )
     220                   )
     221                 )
     222}
     223}}}
     224The technique can be easily adapted for use with multiple projects by creating aliases for each of them, and wrapping the fastcgi.server declarations inside conditional configuration blocks.
     225Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it's to use TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR instead of TRAC_ENV and use global auth, let's see an example:
     226{{{
     227#  This is for handling multiple projects
     228  alias.url       = ( "/trac/" => "/path/to/trac/htdocs/" )
     229
     230  fastcgi.server += ("/projects"  =>
     231                      ("trac" =>
     232                        (
     233                          "socket" => "/tmp/trac.sock",
     234                          "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     235                          "check-local" => "disable",
     236                          "bin-environment" =>
     237                            ("TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR" => "/path/to/parent/dir/of/projects/" )
     238                        )
     239                      )
     240                    )
     241#And here starts the global auth configuration
     242  auth.backend = "htpasswd"
     243  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/unique/htpassword/file/trac.htpasswd"
     244  $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/projects/.*/login$" {
     245    auth.require = ("/" =>
     246                     (
     247                       "method"  => "basic",
     248                       "realm"   => "trac",
     249                       "require" => "valid-user"
     250                     )
     251                   )
     252  }
     253}}}
     254
     255Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME
     256{{{
     257fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     258                   ("trac" =>
     259                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
     260                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     261                      "check-local" => "disable",
     262                      "bin-environment" =>
     263                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv",
     264                        "LC_TIME" => "ru_RU")
     265                     )
     266                   )
     267                 )
     268}}}
     269For details about languages specification see [trac:TracFaq TracFaq] question 2.13.
     270
     271Other important information like [http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/wiki/TracInstall this updated TracInstall page], [wiki:TracCgi#MappingStaticResources and this] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
     272
     273If you use trac-0.9, read [http://lists.edgewall.com/archive/trac/2005-November/005311.html about small bug]
     274
     275Relaunch lighttpd, and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
     276
     277Note about running lighttpd with reduced permissions:
     278
     279  If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with lighttpd settings `server.username = "www-data"`, `server.groupname = "www-data"`, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
     280
     281
     282== Simple !LiteSpeed Configuration ==
     283
     284The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed].
     285
     286!LiteSpeed web server is an event-driven asynchronous Apache replacement designed from the ground-up to be secure, scalable, and operate with minimal resources. !LiteSpeed can operate directly from an Apache config file and is targeted for business-critical environments.
     287
     288=== Setup ===
     289
     290 1. Please make sure you have first have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with “tracd” first.
     291
     292 2. Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as !TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your trac project will be accessible via:
     293
     294{{{
     295http://yourdomain.com/trac/
     296}}}
     297
     298 3. Go “!TracVhost → External Apps” tab and create a new “External Application”.
     299
     300{{{
     301Name: MyTracFCGI       
     302Address: uds://tmp/lshttpd/mytracfcgi.sock
     303Max Connections: 10
     304Environment: TRAC_ENV=/fullpathto/mytracproject/ <--- path to root folder of trac project
     305Initial Request Timeout (secs): 30
     306Retry Timeout (secs): 0
     307Persistent Connection   Yes
     308Connection Keepalive Timeout: 30
     309Response Bufferring: No
     310Auto Start: Yes
     311Command: /usr/share/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi  <--- path to trac.fcgi
     312Back Log: 50
     313Instances: 10
     314}}}
     315
     316 4. Optional. If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to “!TracVhost → Security” tab and create a new security “Realm”.
     317
     318{{{
     319DB Type: Password File
     320Realm Name: MyTracUserDB               <--- any name you wish and referenced later
     321User DB Location: /fullpathto/htpasswd <--- path to your htpasswd file
     322}}}
     323
     324If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
     325
     326 5. Go to “!PythonVhost → Contexts” and create a new “FCGI Context”.
     327
     328{{{
     329URI: /trac/                              <--- URI path to bind to python fcgi app we created   
     330Fast CGI App: [VHost Level] MyTractFCGI  <--- select the trac fcgi extapp we just created
     331Realm: TracUserDB                        <--- only if (4) is set. select realm created in (4)
     332}}}
     333
     334 6. Modify `/fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini`
     335
     336{{{
     337#find/set base_rul, url, and link variables
     338base_url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/ <--- base url to generate correct links to
     339url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/      <--- link of project
     340link = http://yourdomain.com/trac/     <--- link of graphic logo
     341}}}
     342
     343 7. Restart !LiteSpeed, “lswsctrl restart”, and access your new Trac project at:
     344
     345{{{
     346http://yourdomain.com/trac/
     347}}}
     348
     349== Simple Nginx Configuration ==
     350
     351 1. Nginx configuration snippet - confirmed to work on 0.6.32
     352{{{
     353    server {
     354        listen       10.9.8.7:443;
     355        server_name  trac.example;
     356
     357        ssl                  on;
     358        ssl_certificate      /etc/ssl/trac.example.crt;
     359        ssl_certificate_key  /etc/ssl/trac.example.key;
     360
     361        ssl_session_timeout  5m;
     362
     363        ssl_protocols  SSLv2 SSLv3 TLSv1;
     364        ssl_ciphers  ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP;
     365        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;
     366
     367        # (Or ``^/some/prefix/(.*)``.
     368        if ($uri ~ ^/(.*)) {
     369             set $path_info /$1;
     370        }
     371
     372        # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix]/login``
     373        # and remove the auth entries below if you want Trac to enforce
     374        # authorization where appropriate instead of needing to authenticate
     375        # for accessing the whole site.
     376        # (Or ``location /some/prefix``.)
     377        location / {
     378            auth_basic            "trac realm";
     379            auth_basic_user_file /home/trac/htpasswd;
     380
     381            # socket address
     382            fastcgi_pass   unix:/home/trac/run/instance.sock;
     383
     384            # python - wsgi specific
     385            fastcgi_param HTTPS on;
     386
     387            ## WSGI REQUIRED VARIABLES
     388            # WSGI application name - trac instance prefix.
     389            # (Or ``fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME  /some/prefix``.)
     390            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        "";
     391            fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $path_info;
     392
     393            ## WSGI NEEDED VARIABLES - trac warns about them
     394            fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
     395            fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;
     396            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
     397            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
     398            fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING     $query_string;
     399
     400            # for authentication to work
     401            fastcgi_param  AUTH_USER          $remote_user;
     402            fastcgi_param  REMOTE_USER        $remote_user;
     403        }
     404    }
     405}}}
     406
     407 2. Modified trac.fcgi:
     408
     409{{{
     410#!/usr/bin/env python
     411import os
     412sockaddr = '/home/trac/run/instance.sock'
     413os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = '/home/trac/instance'
     414
     415try:
     416     from trac.web.main import dispatch_request
     417     import trac.web._fcgi
     418
     419     fcgiserv = trac.web._fcgi.WSGIServer(dispatch_request,
     420          bindAddress = sockaddr, umask = 7)
     421     fcgiserv.run()
     422
     423except SystemExit:
     424    raise
     425except Exception, e:
     426    print 'Content-Type: text/plain\r\n\r\n',
     427    print 'Oops...'
     428    print
     429    print 'Trac detected an internal error:'
     430    print
     431    print e
     432    print
     433    import traceback
     434    import StringIO
     435    tb = StringIO.StringIO()
     436    traceback.print_exc(file=tb)
     437    print tb.getvalue()
     438
     439}}}
     440
     441 3. reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi like that:
     442
     443{{{
     444trac@trac.example ~ $ ./trac-standalone-fcgi.py
     445}}}
     446
     447The above assumes that:
     448 * There is a user named 'trac' for running trac instances and keeping trac environments in its home directory.
     449 * `/home/trac/instance` contains a trac environment
     450 * `/home/trac/htpasswd` contains authentication information
     451 * `/home/trac/run` is owned by the same group the nginx runs under
     452  * and if your system is Linux the `/home/trac/run` has setgid bit set (`chmod g+s run`)
     453  * and patch from ticket #T7239 is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
     454
     455Unfortunately nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
     456Thus it is not possible to serve multiple trac instances from one server block.
     457
     458If you worry enough about security, run trac instances under separate users.
     459
     460Another way to run trac as a FCGI external application is offered in ticket #T6224
     461
     462----
     463See also:  TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI ModWSGI], [wiki:TracCgi CGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]