Replying to [comment:2 adrian.moennich@…]:
I've just closed the script tag in the testcase. The missing closing tag was NOT the reason for the issue (I simply forgot it when adding the jquery script tag to the testcase).
If you can provide a minimal test case, reproducing the problem and showing this is indeed a bug in jQuery, following the procedure in: How to report bugs we might be able to help you.
P.S. What I noticed is that the pop up seems to be there - on the jQuery included page - after clicking the link but for some reason isn't visible.
$("div.exclusivePopup").css("position", "absolute") after clicking the link (e.g. in the url field or js-console) for some reason makes the pop up visible in Chrome.