I think it's very valuable to have a fresh perspective on how we can do better to inform people. It will always take coders a little time and we will always need people like Rick to be style nazis (new term), but including information on how to get involved and how to contribute on the github page is a great idea. That is probably the first place developers go when interested in contributing.
Nevertheless, I don't think it's realistic to think that we can be SO good at informing developers on how to contribute they are immediately familiar with the styleguide, the source, the scope of core (or UI or mobile) and its features, its size, etc.
It is incredibly helpful to have a new coder come in and critique the source or a certain way of doing things, but there is also some amount of trust new coders need to have for the more seasoned developers. There have been many instances where a new contributor will come in with some amount of tunnel vision (expectedly) and assume that their solution has not been discussed or is the best possible way to do something or is certainly within the scope of core. And this necessary "vision-widening" will really only happen through spending time in the jQuery community, sitting in #jquery-dev, attending the meetings, etc.
Anyway, maybe I'm getting off-topic now (perhaps I can spark more discussion), but at least links to the bug-patching guidelines, the styleguide, and the getting involved page would be good to have in the README.