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Ticket #5482: contains.html

File contains.html, 150.7 KB (added by jakkob, 11 years ago)

TestCase (script in line 80 ff )

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3<head>
4<title>Banana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</title>
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17
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32wgScriptPath="/w",
33wgScriptExtension=".php",
34wgScript="/w/index.php",
35wgVariantArticlePath=false,
36wgActionPaths={},
37wgServer="http://en.wikipedia.org",
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61wgDBname="enwiki",
62wgSearchNamespaces=[0],
63wgMWSuggestMessages=["with suggestions", "no suggestions"],
64wgRestrictionEdit=["autoconfirmed"],
65wgRestrictionMove=["sysop"],
66wgNotice="",
67wgNoticeLocal="";
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71<script src="/skins-1.5/common/mwsuggest.js?urid=243z2" type="text/javascript"></script>
72
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74
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76        <meta http-equiv="imagetoolbar" content="no" /><![endif]-->
77<script src="/w/index.php?title=-&amp;action=raw&amp;gen=js&amp;useskin=monobook&amp;urid=243z2_319406805" type="text/javascript"></script>
78<script type="text/javascript" src="jquery-1.3.2.js"></script>
79<script>
80$(document).ready(function(){
81var test = 'fleshy edible inner portion \\)';
82
83var exp = ':contains("fleshy edible inner portion )")';
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86
87console.log(exp);
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90
91</head>
92<body class="mediawiki ltr ns-0 ns-subject page-Banana skin-monobook">
93        <div id="globalWrapper">
94                <div id="column-content">
95        <div id="content">
96                <a id="top"></a>
97
98                <div id="siteNotice"><script type='text/javascript'>if (wgNotice != '') document.writeln(wgNotice);</script></div>              <h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading">Banana</h1>
99                <div id="bodyContent">
100                        <h3 id="siteSub">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</h3>
101                        <div id="contentSub"></div>
102                                                                        <div id="jump-to-nav">Jump to: <a href="#column-one">navigation</a>, <a href="#searchInput">search</a></div>                    <!-- start content -->
103
104                        <div class="dablink">For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Banana_(disambiguation)" title="Banana (disambiguation)">Banana (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
105<div class="metadata topicon" id="protected-icon" style="display:none; right:55px;"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Protection_policy#move" title="This article is move-protected."><img alt="This article is move-protected." src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/58/Padlock-olive.svg/20px-Padlock-olive.svg.png" width="20" height="20" /></a></div>
106<table class="infobox biota" style="text-align: left; width: 200px">
107<tr>
108<th colspan="2" style="text-align: center; background-color: #90EE90">Banana</th>
109</tr>
110<tr>
111<td colspan="2" style="text-align: center"><a href="/wiki/File:Banana_and_cross_section.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Banana_and_cross_section.jpg/250px-Banana_and_cross_section.jpg" width="250" height="90" /></a></td>
112</tr>
113<tr>
114<td colspan="2" style="text-align: center; font-size: 88%">Peeled, whole, and cross section</td>
115
116</tr>
117<tr>
118<th colspan="2" style="text-align: center; background-color: #90EE90"><a href="/wiki/Biological_classification" title="Biological classification">Scientific classification</a></th>
119</tr>
120<tr>
121<td>Kingdom:</td>
122<td><span class="kingdom"><a href="/wiki/Plantae" title="Plantae" class="mw-redirect">Plantae</a></span><br /></td>
123</tr>
124<tr>
125<td>(unranked):</td>
126<td><a href="/wiki/Angiosperms" title="Angiosperms" class="mw-redirect">Angiosperms</a><br /></td>
127</tr>
128
129<tr>
130<td>(unranked):</td>
131<td><a href="/wiki/Monocots" title="Monocots" class="mw-redirect">Monocots</a><br /></td>
132</tr>
133<tr>
134<td>(unranked):</td>
135<td><a href="/wiki/Commelinids" title="Commelinids">Commelinids</a><br /></td>
136</tr>
137<tr>
138<td>Order:</td>
139<td><span class="order"><a href="/wiki/Zingiberales" title="Zingiberales">Zingiberales</a></span><br /></td>
140
141</tr>
142<tr>
143<td>Family:</td>
144<td><span class="family"><a href="/wiki/Musaceae" title="Musaceae">Musaceae</a></span><br /></td>
145</tr>
146<tr>
147<td>Genus:</td>
148<td><span class="genus"><a href="/wiki/Musa_(genus)" title="Musa (genus)">Musa</a></span><br /></td>
149</tr>
150</table>
151<p><b>Banana</b> is the <a href="/wiki/Common_name" title="Common name">common name</a> for <a href="/wiki/Herbaceous_plant" title="Herbaceous plant">herbaceous plants</a> of the <a href="/wiki/Genus" title="Genus">genus</a> <i><a href="/wiki/Musa_(genus)" title="Musa (genus)">Musa</a></i> and for the <a href="/wiki/Fruit" title="Fruit">fruit</a> they produce. They are native to the tropical region of <a href="/wiki/Southeast_Asia" title="Southeast Asia">Southeast Asia</a>, and are likely to have been first domesticated in <a href="/wiki/Papua_New_Guinea" title="Papua New Guinea">Papua New Guinea</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-apscience_0-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-apscience-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> Today, they are cultivated throughout the <a href="/wiki/Tropics" title="Tropics">tropics</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
152
153<p>Banana plants are of the <a href="/wiki/Family_(biology)" title="Family (biology)">family</a> <a href="/wiki/Musaceae" title="Musaceae">Musaceae</a>. They are cultivated primarily for their fruit, and to a lesser extent for the production of <a href="/wiki/Fiber" title="Fiber">fibre</a> and as <a href="/wiki/Ornamental_plant" title="Ornamental plant">ornamental plants</a>. As the banana plants are normally tall and fairly sturdy, they are often mistaken for <a href="/wiki/Tree" title="Tree">trees</a>, but their main or upright stem is actually a <a href="/wiki/Pseudostem" title="Pseudostem" class="mw-redirect">pseudostem</a>. For some <a href="/wiki/Species" title="Species">species</a>, this pseudostem can reach a <a href="/wiki/Height" title="Height">height</a> of up to 2–8&#160;m, with <a href="/wiki/Leaf" title="Leaf">leaves</a> of up to 3.5&#160;m in <a href="/wiki/Length" title="Length">length</a>. Each pseudostem can produce a bunch of green bananas, which when ripened often turn yellow or sometimes red. After bearing fruit, the pseudostem dies and is replaced by another.</p>
154
155<p>The banana fruit grow in hanging clusters, with up to 20 fruit to a tier (called a <i>hand</i>), and 3–20 <a href="http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/tier#noun_2" class="extiw" title="wikt:tier">tiers</a> to a bunch. The total of the hanging clusters is known as a bunch, or commercially as a "banana stem", and can weigh from 30–50&#160;kg. The fruit averages 125&#160;g, of which approximately 75% is <a href="/wiki/Water" title="Water">water</a> and 25% dry matter content. Each individual fruit (known as a banana or 'finger') has a protective outer layer (a peel or skin) with a fleshy <a href="/wiki/Eating" title="Eating">edible</a> inner portion. Both skin and inner part can be eaten raw or cooked. <a href="/wiki/Western_culture" title="Western culture">Western cultures</a> generally eat the inside raw and throw away the skin while some Asian <a href="/wiki/Culture" title="Culture">cultures</a> generally eat both the skin and inside cooked. The fruit typically has numerous strings (called <a href="/wiki/Phloem" title="Phloem">phloem</a> <a href="/wiki/Vascular_bundle" title="Vascular bundle">bundles</a>), which run between the skin and inner part. The inner part of the common yellow dessert variety splits easily lengthwise into three strips. Bananas are a valuable source of <a href="/wiki/Vitamin_B6" title="Vitamin B6">vitamin B<sub>6</sub></a>, <a href="/wiki/Vitamin_C" title="Vitamin C">vitamin C</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Potassium" title="Potassium">potassium</a>.</p>
156
157<div class="thumb tright">
158<div class="thumbinner" style="width:255px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Bananas.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Bananas.jpg/253px-Bananas.jpg" width="253" height="168" class="thumbimage" /></a>
159<div class="thumbcaption">
160<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Bananas.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
161'Cavendish' bananas are the main commercial cultivar</div>
162</div>
163</div>
164<p>Bananas are grown in at least 107 <a href="/wiki/Country" title="Country">countries</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-fao_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-fao-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup> In <a href="/wiki/Popular_culture" title="Popular culture">popular culture</a> and <a href="/wiki/Commerce" title="Commerce">commerce</a>, "banana" usually refers to soft, sweet "dessert" bananas. The bananas from a group of <a href="/wiki/Cultivar" title="Cultivar">cultivars</a> with firmer, starchier fruit are called <a href="/wiki/Plantain" title="Plantain">plantains</a>. Bananas may also be cut and dried and eaten as a type of chip. Dried bananas are also ground into banana flour.</p>
165
166<p>Although the wild species have fruits with numerous large, hard <a href="/wiki/Seed" title="Seed">seeds</a>, virtually all culinary bananas have <a href="/wiki/Seedless_fruit" title="Seedless fruit">seedless fruits</a>. Bananas are classified either as <a href="/wiki/Dessert" title="Dessert">dessert</a> bananas (meaning they are yellow and fully ripe when eaten) or as green cooking bananas. Almost all export bananas are of the dessert types; however, only about 10–15% of all production is for <a href="/wiki/Export" title="Export">export</a>, with the <a href="/wiki/United_States" title="United States">United States</a> and <a href="/wiki/European_Union" title="European Union">European Union</a> being the dominant buyers.</p>
167
168<table id="toc" class="toc">
169<tr>
170<td>
171<div id="toctitle">
172<h2>Contents</h2>
173</div>
174<ul>
175<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Botany"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Botany</span></a></li>
176<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Properties"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Properties</span></a></li>
177<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a href="#Culinary_usage"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Culinary usage</span></a>
178
179<ul>
180<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#The_flower"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">The flower</span></a></li>
181<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#The_trunk"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">The trunk</span></a></li>
182<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#The_fruit"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">The fruit</span></a></li>
183<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#The_leaves"><span class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">The leaves</span></a></li>
184
185</ul>
186</li>
187<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-8"><a href="#Trade"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Trade</span></a></li>
188<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-9"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a>
189<ul>
190<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Early_cultivation"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Early cultivation</span></a></li>
191<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Plantation_cultivation"><span class="tocnumber">5.2</span> <span class="toctext">Plantation cultivation</span></a></li>
192
193</ul>
194</li>
195<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-12"><a href="#Cultivation"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Cultivation</span></a></li>
196<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-13"><a href="#Pests.2C_diseases.2C_and_natural_disasters"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Pests, diseases, and natural disasters</span></a>
197<ul>
198<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#Major_diseases"><span class="tocnumber">7.1</span> <span class="toctext">Major diseases</span></a>
199<ul>
200<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-15"><a href="#In_Australia"><span class="tocnumber">7.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">In Australia</span></a></li>
201
202<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-16"><a href="#In_East_Africa"><span class="tocnumber">7.1.2</span> <span class="toctext">In East Africa</span></a></li>
203</ul>
204</li>
205</ul>
206</li>
207<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-17"><a href="#Health_benefits"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Health benefits</span></a></li>
208<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-18"><a href="#Fibre"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Fibre</span></a>
209<ul>
210
211<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-19"><a href="#Textiles"><span class="tocnumber">9.1</span> <span class="toctext">Textiles</span></a></li>
212<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-20"><a href="#Paper"><span class="tocnumber">9.2</span> <span class="toctext">Paper</span></a></li>
213</ul>
214</li>
215<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-21"><a href="#Storage_and_transport"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">Storage and transport</span></a></li>
216<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-22"><a href="#Usage_in_culture"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">Usage in culture</span></a>
217
218<ul>
219<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-23"><a href="#Peels"><span class="tocnumber">11.1</span> <span class="toctext">Peels</span></a></li>
220<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-24"><a href="#Arts"><span class="tocnumber">11.2</span> <span class="toctext">Arts</span></a></li>
221<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-25"><a href="#Symbols"><span class="tocnumber">11.3</span> <span class="toctext">Symbols</span></a></li>
222</ul>
223</li>
224<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-26"><a href="#Gallery"><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">Gallery</span></a></li>
225
226<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-27"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">13</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a>
227<ul>
228<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-28"><a href="#Culinary_usage_2"><span class="tocnumber">13.1</span> <span class="toctext">Culinary usage</span></a></li>
229</ul>
230</li>
231<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-29"><a href="#Footnotes"><span class="tocnumber">14</span> <span class="toctext">Footnotes</span></a></li>
232<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-30"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">15</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
233
234<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-31"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">16</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
235<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-32"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">17</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
236</ul>
237</td>
238</tr>
239</table>
240<script type="text/javascript">
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242if (window.showTocToggle) { var tocShowText = "show"; var tocHideText = "hide"; showTocToggle(); } 
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244</script>
245<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Botany">Botany</span></h2>
246<table class="metadata plainlinks ambox mbox-small-left ambox-notice" style="">
247
248<tr>
249<td class="mbox-image"><a href="/wiki/File:Wiki_letter_w.svg" class="image"><img alt="Wiki letter w.svg" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6c/Wiki_letter_w.svg/20px-Wiki_letter_w.svg.png" width="20" height="20" /></a></td>
250<td class="mbox-text" style="">This section requires <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Banana&amp;action=edit" class="external text" rel="nofollow">expansion</a>.</td>
251</tr>
252</table>
253<div class="thumb tright">
254<div class="thumbinner" style="width:238px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Banana_1.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fd/Banana_1.png/236px-Banana_1.png" width="236" height="370" class="thumbimage" /></a>
255<div class="thumbcaption">
256<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Banana_1.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
257Banana tree (<i>Musa sapientum</i>) from 1911 <a href="/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica" title="Encyclopædia Britannica">Encyclopædia Britannica</a></div>
258
259</div>
260</div>
261<p>Botanically, the bananas are placed in the genus Musa in the family <a href="/wiki/Musaceae" title="Musaceae">Musaceae</a>. The <a href="/wiki/APG_II_system" title="APG II system">APG II system</a>, of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system, 1998), assigns <a href="/wiki/Musaceae" title="Musaceae">Musaceae</a> to the order <a href="/wiki/Zingiberales" title="Zingiberales">Zingiberales</a> in the clade commelinids in the <a href="/wiki/Monocots" title="Monocots" class="mw-redirect">monocotyledonous flowering plants</a>.</p>
262<p>The banana plant is a pseudostem that grows to 6 to 7.6 metres (20–25 feet) tall, growing from a <a href="/wiki/Corm" title="Corm">corm</a>. Leaves are spirally arranged and may grow 2.7 metres (9 ft) long and 60&#160;cm (2 ft) wide.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup> The banana plant is the largest of all herbaceous flowering plants.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup> The large leaves grow whole, but are easily torn by the wind, resulting in the familiar frond look.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
263
264<p>A single, <a href="/wiki/Sterility" title="Sterility">sterile</a>, male banana flower, also known as the <i>banana heart</i> is normally produced by each stem (though on rare occasions more can be produced—a single plant in the <a href="/wiki/Philippines" title="Philippines">Philippines</a> has five<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup>). Banana hearts are used as a <a href="/wiki/Vegetable" title="Vegetable">vegetable</a> in <a href="/wiki/Southeast_Asia" title="Southeast Asia">Southeast Asia</a>, steamed, in <a href="/wiki/Salad" title="Salad">salads</a>, or eaten raw.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup> The female flowers are produced further up the stem and produce the actual fruit without requiring fertilization. The fruit has been described as a "leathery berry".<sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup> In cultivated varieties, the seeds have degenerated nearly to non-existence; their remnants are tiny black specks in the interior of the fruit. The ovary is inferior to the flower; because of their stiff stems and the positioning of the ovary and flower, bananas grow sticking up, not hanging down.</p>
265
266<p>Some sources assert that the genus of the banana, <i><a href="/wiki/Musa_(genus)" title="Musa (genus)">Musa</a></i>, is named for Antonio Musa, physician to the Emperor <a href="/wiki/Augustus" title="Augustus">Augustus</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup> Others say that <a href="/wiki/Linnaeus" title="Linnaeus" class="mw-redirect">Linnaeus</a>, who gave the genus its name in <a href="/wiki/1750" title="1750">1750</a>, simply adapted an <a href="/wiki/Arabic" title="Arabic" class="mw-redirect">Arabic</a> word for banana, <i>mauz</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-keppel44_10-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-keppel44-10"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup> The word <i>banana</i> itself comes from the Arabic word <i>banan</i>, which means "finger".<sup id="cite_ref-keppel44_10-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-keppel44-10"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup> The genus contains numerous species; several produce edible fruit, while others are cultivated as ornamentals.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
267
268<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Properties">Properties</span></h2>
269<table class="infobox" style="float: right; clear: right; font-size: 88%; text-align: left; width: 22em; line-height: 1.5em">
270<caption style="font-size: 125%; font-weight: bold">Banana, raw, edible parts</caption>
271<tr>
272<th style="text-align: center">Nutritional value per 100&#160;g (3.5 oz)</th>
273</tr>
274<tr style="background-color: #e0e0e0; color: black">
275<td style="text-align: center"><a href="/wiki/Food_energy" title="Food energy">Energy</a> 90 kcal &#160; 370 kJ</td>
276
277</tr>
278<tr>
279<td>
280<table style="margin: 0.3em" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">
281<tr>
282<th style="text-align: left"><a href="/wiki/Carbohydrate" title="Carbohydrate">Carbohydrates</a> &#160; &#160;</th>
283<td>22.84 g</td>
284</tr>
285<tr>
286<td colspan="2">- Sugars &#160;12.23 g</td>
287</tr>
288
289<tr>
290<td colspan="2">- <a href="/wiki/Dietary_fiber" title="Dietary fiber">Dietary fiber</a> &#160;2.6 g &#160;</td>
291</tr>
292<tr>
293<th style="text-align: left"><a href="/wiki/Fat" title="Fat">Fat</a></th>
294<td>0.33 g</td>
295</tr>
296<tr>
297<th style="text-align: left"><a href="/wiki/Protein#Nutrition" title="Protein">Protein</a></th>
298<td>1.09 g</td>
299
300</tr>
301<tr>
302<td><a href="/wiki/Vitamin_A" title="Vitamin A">Vitamin A</a> equiv. &#160;3 µg&#160;</td>
303<td>0%</td>
304</tr>
305<tr>
306<td><a href="/wiki/Thiamine" title="Thiamine">Thiamine (Vit. B1)</a> &#160;0.031 mg &#160;</td>
307<td>2%</td>
308
309</tr>
310<tr>
311<td><a href="/wiki/Riboflavin" title="Riboflavin">Riboflavin (Vit. B2)</a> &#160;0.073 mg &#160;</td>
312<td>5%</td>
313</tr>
314<tr>
315<td><a href="/wiki/Niacin" title="Niacin">Niacin (Vit. B3)</a> &#160;0.665 mg &#160;</td>
316<td>4%</td>
317</tr>
318
319<tr>
320<td><a href="/wiki/Pantothenic_acid" title="Pantothenic acid">Pantothenic acid</a> (B5) &#160;0.334 mg&#160;</td>
321<td>7%</td>
322</tr>
323<tr>
324<td><a href="/wiki/Vitamin_B6" title="Vitamin B6">Vitamin B6</a> &#160;0.367 mg</td>
325<td>28%</td>
326</tr>
327
328<tr>
329<td><a href="/wiki/Folate" title="Folate" class="mw-redirect">Folate</a> (Vit. B9) &#160;20 µg&#160;</td>
330<td>5%</td>
331</tr>
332<tr>
333<td><a href="/wiki/Vitamin_C" title="Vitamin C">Vitamin C</a> &#160;8.7 mg</td>
334<td>15%</td>
335</tr>
336
337<tr>
338<td><a href="/wiki/Calcium#Nutrition" title="Calcium">Calcium</a> &#160;5 mg</td>
339<td>1%</td>
340</tr>
341<tr>
342<td><a href="/wiki/Iron#Biological_role" title="Iron">Iron</a> &#160;0.26 mg</td>
343<td>2%</td>
344</tr>
345<tr>
346
347<td><a href="/wiki/Magnesium_in_biological_systems" title="Magnesium in biological systems" class="mw-redirect">Magnesium</a> &#160;27 mg</td>
348<td>7%&#160;</td>
349</tr>
350<tr>
351<td><a href="/wiki/Phosphorus#Biological_role" title="Phosphorus">Phosphorus</a> &#160;22 mg</td>
352<td>3%</td>
353</tr>
354<tr>
355<td><a href="/wiki/Potassium#Potassium_in_the_diet_and_by_supplement" title="Potassium">Potassium</a> &#160;358 mg &#160;</td>
356
357<td>8%</td>
358</tr>
359<tr>
360<td><a href="/wiki/Zinc" title="Zinc">Zinc</a> &#160;0.15 mg</td>
361<td>1%</td>
362</tr>
363</table>
364</td>
365</tr>
366<tr style="background-color: #e0e0e0; color: black">
367<td style="font-size: 90%; text-align: center; padding: 4pt; line-height: 1.25em">One banana is 100–150 g.<br />
368
369Percentages are relative to US<br />
370<a href="/wiki/Reference_Daily_Intake" title="Reference Daily Intake">recommendations</a> for adults.<br />
371<small>Source: <a href="http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">USDA Nutrient database</a></small></td>
372</tr>
373</table>
374<p>Bananas come in a variety of sizes and <a href="/wiki/Color" title="Color">colors</a> when ripe, including yellow, purple, and red. Bananas can be eaten raw though some varieties are generally cooked first. Depending upon cultivar and ripeness, the flesh can vary in taste from starchy to sweet, and texture from firm to mushy. Unripe or green bananas and <a href="/wiki/Plantain" title="Plantain">plantains</a> are used as an ingredient in various dishes, such as in curries and stews, and are the staple <a href="/wiki/Starch" title="Starch">starch</a> of many <a href="/wiki/Tropics" title="Tropics">tropical</a> populations. Banana sap is extremely sticky and can be used as a practical adhesive. Sap can be obtained from the pseudostem, from the fruit peelings, or from the fruit flesh.</p>
375
376<p>Most production for local sale is of green cooking bananas and <a href="/wiki/Plantain" title="Plantain">plantains</a>, as ripe dessert bananas are easily damaged while being transported to market. Even when transported only within their country of origin, ripe bananas suffer a high rate of damage and loss.<sup class="noprint Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from February 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
377<p>The commercial dessert cultivars most commonly eaten in <a href="/wiki/Temperateness" title="Temperateness">temperate</a> countries (species <i>Musa acuminata</i> or the <a href="/wiki/Hybrid_(biology)" title="Hybrid (biology)">hybrid</a> <i>Musa × paradisiaca</i>, a <a href="/wiki/Cultigen" title="Cultigen">cultigen</a>) are imported in large quantities from the tropics. They are popular in part because, being a non-seasonal crop, they are available fresh year-round. In global commerce, by far the most important of these banana <a href="/wiki/Cultivar" title="Cultivar">cultivars</a> is '<a href="/wiki/Cavendish_banana" title="Cavendish banana">Cavendish</a>', which accounts for the vast bulk of bananas exported from the tropics. The Cavendish gained popularity in the 1950s after the previously mass produced cultivar, <a href="/wiki/Gros_Michel_banana" title="Gros Michel banana">Gros Michel</a>, became commercially unviable due to <a href="/wiki/Fusarium_oxysporum" title="Fusarium oxysporum">Panama disease</a>, a fungus which attacks the roots of the banana plant.</p>
378
379<p>The most important properties making 'Cavendish' the main export banana are related to transport and shelf life rather than taste; major commercial cultivars rarely have a superior flavor<sup class="noprint Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from February 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup> compared to the less widespread cultivars. Export bananas are picked green, and then usually ripened in ripening rooms when they arrive in their country of destination. These are special rooms made air-tight and filled with <a href="/wiki/Ethylene" title="Ethylene">ethylene</a> gas to induce ripening. Bananas can be ordered by the retailer "ungassed", however, and may show up at the supermarket still fully green. While these bananas will ripen more slowly, the flavor will be notably richer<sup class="noprint Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from February 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup>, and the banana peel can be allowed to reach a yellow/brown speckled phase, and yet retain a firm flesh inside. Thus, shelf life is somewhat extended.</p>
380<p>The vivid yellow color normally associated with supermarket bananas is in fact a side-effect of the artificial ripening process. Cavendish bananas that have been allowed to ripen naturally on the plant have a greenish-yellow appearance which changes to a brownish-yellow as they ripen further. Although both the flavor and texture of "tree ripened" bananas is generally regarded as superior to any type green-picked fruit, once natural ripening has commenced the shelf life is typically only 7–10 days, making commercial distribution impractical. For most people the only practical means of obtaining such fruit is growing it themselves, however this is also somewhat problematic, as the bananas all tend to ripen at once and have very poor keeping properties.</p>
381<p>The flavor and texture of bananas are also affected by the temperature at which they ripen. Bananas are refrigerated to between 13.5 and 15 °C (57 and 59 °F) during transportation. At lower temperatures, the ripening of bananas permanently stalls, and the bananas will eventually turn gray as cell walls break down. The skins of ripe bananas will quickly turn black in the 4°C environment of a domestic refrigerator, although the fruit inside remains unaffected.</p>
382
383<p>The banana flavor is due, amongst others, to <a href="/wiki/Isoamyl_acetate" title="Isoamyl acetate">isoamyl acetate</a> which is one of the main constituents of <a href="/wiki/Banana_oil" title="Banana oil" class="mw-redirect">banana oil</a>.</p>
384<p>It should be noted that <i>Musa × paradisiaca</i> is also the generic name for the common <a href="/wiki/Plantain" title="Plantain">plantain</a>, a coarser and starchier variant not to be confused with <i>Musa acuminata</i> or the Cavendish variety.</p>
385
386<p>The <a href="/wiki/Banana_leaf" title="Banana leaf">leaves</a> of the banana plant are large, flexible, and waterproof. They are used many ways, including as <a href="/wiki/Umbrella" title="Umbrella">umbrellas</a> and to wrap food for cooking or storage.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup> Banana leaves are also used to serve food in India and other Asian countries.</p>
387<p><a href="/wiki/Banana_chips" title="Banana chips">Banana chips</a> are a snack produced from dehydrated or fried banana or plantain slices, which have a dark brown color and an intense banana taste. Unlike other fruits, it is difficult to extract juice from bananas because when compressed a banana simply turns to pulp.</p>
388
389<p>Seeded bananas (<i><a href="/wiki/Musa_balbisiana" title="Musa balbisiana">Musa balbisiana</a></i>), the forerunner of the common domesticated banana,<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13"><span>[</span>14<span>]</span></a></sup> are sold in markets in Indonesia.</p>
390<p>In <a href="/wiki/India" title="India">India</a>, juice is extracted from the <a href="/wiki/Corm" title="Corm">corm</a> and used as a <a href="/wiki/Home_remedy" title="Home remedy">home remedy</a> for the treatment of <a href="/wiki/Jaundice" title="Jaundice">jaundice</a>, sometimes with the addition of <a href="/wiki/Honey" title="Honey">honey</a>, and for kidney stones.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
391
392<div class="thumb tleft">
393<div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Banana-fluorescence-081108.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Banana-fluorescence-081108.jpg/180px-Banana-fluorescence-081108.jpg" width="180" height="68" class="thumbimage" /></a>
394<div class="thumbcaption">
395<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Banana-fluorescence-081108.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
396Ripened bananas (left, under <a href="/wiki/Sunlight" title="Sunlight">sunlight</a>) fluoresce in blue when exposed to <a href="/wiki/UV_light" title="UV light" class="mw-redirect">UV light</a>.</div>
397</div>
398</div>
399<p>A 2008 study reported that ripe bananas exhibit a blue <a href="/wiki/Fluorescence" title="Fluorescence">fluorescence</a> when exposed to <a href="/wiki/Ultraviolet" title="Ultraviolet">ultraviolet</a> light. This property is attributed to the degradation of <a href="/wiki/Chlorophyll" title="Chlorophyll">chlorophyll</a> giving rise to the accumulation of a fluorescent product in the skin of the fruit. The chlorophyll breakdown product is stabilized by a propionate ester group. Banana-tree leaves also fluoresce in the same way. Green bananas do not show any sign of fluorescence. The study suggested that this allows animals which are capable of seeing in the ultraviolet spectrum to detect ripened bananas.<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup><br style="clear:both" /></p>
400
401<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Culinary_usage">Culinary usage</span></h2>
402<div class="thumb tright">
403<div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><a href="/wiki/File:M._acuminata_x_balbisiana.JPG" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/85/M._acuminata_x_balbisiana.JPG/180px-M._acuminata_x_balbisiana.JPG" width="180" height="135" class="thumbimage" /></a>
404<div class="thumbcaption">
405<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:M._acuminata_x_balbisiana.JPG" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
406<i>M. acuminata x balbisiana</i> <a href="/wiki/Inflorescence" title="Inflorescence">inflorescence</a>, partially opened.</div>
407</div>
408</div>
409<div class="thumb tright">
410<div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Thanin_market_banana_flowers_and_leaves.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/Thanin_market_banana_flowers_and_leaves.jpg/180px-Thanin_market_banana_flowers_and_leaves.jpg" width="180" height="120" class="thumbimage" /></a>
411<div class="thumbcaption">
412<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Thanin_market_banana_flowers_and_leaves.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
413
414Banana flowers and leaves for sale at Thanin market in <a href="/wiki/Chiang_Mai" title="Chiang Mai">Chiang Mai</a>, <a href="/wiki/Thailand" title="Thailand">Thailand</a></div>
415</div>
416</div>
417<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="The_flower">The flower</span></h3>
418<p>In addition to the fruit, the <a href="/wiki/Flower" title="Flower">flower</a> of the banana plant (also known as <i>banana blossom</i> or <i>banana heart</i>) is used in <a href="/wiki/Southeast_Asia" title="Southeast Asia">Southeast Asian</a>, <a href="/wiki/Telugu" title="Telugu" class="mw-redirect">Telugu</a>,<a href="/wiki/Tamil_cuisine" title="Tamil cuisine">Tamil</a>, <a href="/wiki/Bengali_cuisine" title="Bengali cuisine">Bengali</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Cuisine_of_Kerala" title="Cuisine of Kerala">Kerala (India) cuisine</a>, either served raw or steamed with dips or cooked in soups and curries. Banana flowers are somewhat similar in taste to <a href="/wiki/Artichoke" title="Artichoke">artichokes</a> and can be eaten in much the same way where one scrapes off the fleshy part of the petals and eats the whole of the heart.</p>
419
420<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="The_trunk">The trunk</span></h3>
421<p>The tender core of the banana plant's trunk is also used in Telugu, Bengali and Kerala cooking, and notably in the <a href="/wiki/Burma" title="Burma">Burmese</a> dish <a href="/wiki/Mohinga" title="Mohinga">mohinga</a>. The juice extract prepared from the tender core is used to treat <a href="/wiki/Kidney_stone" title="Kidney stone">kidney stones</a> and <a href="/wiki/Hypertension" title="Hypertension">high blood pressure</a>.</p>
422<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="The_fruit">The fruit</span></h3>
423<p><a href="/wiki/Pisang_goreng" title="Pisang goreng">Bananas fried with batter</a> is a popular dessert in <a href="/wiki/Malaysia" title="Malaysia">Malaysia</a>, <a href="/wiki/Singapore" title="Singapore">Singapore</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Indonesia" title="Indonesia">Indonesia</a>. Banana fritters can be served with <a href="/wiki/Ice_cream" title="Ice cream">ice cream</a> as well. Bananas are also eaten deep fried, baked in their skin in a split bamboo, or steamed in <a href="/wiki/Glutinous_rice" title="Glutinous rice">glutinous rice</a> wrapped in a banana leaf. In <a href="/wiki/Burma" title="Burma">Burma</a>, bunches of green bananas surrounding a green coconut in a tray form an important part of traditional offerings to the <a href="/wiki/Gautama_Buddha" title="Gautama Buddha">Buddha</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Nat_(spirit)" title="Nat (spirit)">Nats</a>. Bananas have also been used in the making of <a href="/wiki/Fruit_preserves" title="Fruit preserves">jam</a>. Plantain bananas are used in various stews and curries or cooked, baked or mashed in much the same way as <a href="/wiki/Potatoes" title="Potatoes" class="mw-redirect">potatoes</a>. Banana <a href="/wiki/Pancake" title="Pancake">pancakes</a> are popular amongst <a href="/wiki/Backpacker" title="Backpacker">backpackers</a> and other travellers in <a href="/wiki/South_Asia" title="South Asia">South</a> and <a href="/wiki/Southeast_Asia" title="Southeast Asia">Southeast Asia</a>. This has elicited the expression <i><a href="/wiki/Banana_Pancake_Trail" title="Banana Pancake Trail">Banana Pancake Trail</a></i> for those places in Asia catering to this group of travellers.</p>
424
425<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="The_leaves">The leaves</span></h3>
426<p>Banana leaves are often used as ecologically friendly disposable food containers or as "plates". Steamed with dishes it imparts a subtle sweet flavour. It is often also seen used as a wrapping for grilling food and as such it contains the juices and prevents the food from getting burned whilst at the same time giving off a subtle flavour.</p>
427<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Trade">Trade</span></h2>
428<div class="thumb tright">
429<div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Banana_production_by_nation.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Banana_production_by_nation.svg/300px-Banana_production_by_nation.svg.png" width="300" height="136" class="thumbimage" /></a>
430<div class="thumbcaption">
431<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Banana_production_by_nation.svg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
432Banana output in 2005</div>
433</div>
434</div>
435<table class="metadata plainlinks ambox ambox-content" style="">
436<tr>
437<td class="mbox-image">
438
439<div style="width: 52px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Question_book-new.svg" class="image"><img alt="Question book-new.svg" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/50px-Question_book-new.svg.png" width="50" height="39" /></a></div>
440</td>
441<td class="mbox-text" style="">This section <b>needs additional <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources#Inline_citations" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources">citations</a> for <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">verification</a>.</b><br />
442<small>Please help <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Banana&amp;action=edit" class="external text" rel="nofollow">improve this article</a> by adding <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Reliable_sources" title="Wikipedia:Reliable sources">reliable references</a>. Unsourced material may be <a href="/wiki/Template:Fact" title="Template:Fact" class="mw-redirect">challenged</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability#Burden_of_evidence" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">removed</a>. <small><i>(June 2009)</i></small></small></td>
443
444</tr>
445</table>
446<table class="metadata plainlinks ambox ambox-content" style="">
447<tr>
448<td class="mbox-image">
449<div style="width: 52px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Ambox_outdated_content.svg" class="image"><img alt="Ambox outdated content.svg" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/Ambox_outdated_content.svg/42px-Ambox_outdated_content.svg.png" width="42" height="42" /></a></div>
450</td>
451<td class="mbox-text" style="">This section's <b><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Accuracy_dispute" title="Wikipedia:Accuracy dispute">factual accuracy</a> may be compromised because of out-of-date information</b>. Please help <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Banana&amp;action=edit" class="external text" rel="nofollow">improve the article</a> by updating it. There may be additional information on the <a href="/wiki/Talk:Banana" title="Talk:Banana">talk page</a>. <small><i>(June 2009)</i></small></td>
452
453</tr>
454</table>
455<table class="wikitable" border="1">
456<tr>
457<th colspan="2">Top banana producing nations - 2007<br />
458(in million metric tons)</th>
459</tr>
460<tr>
461<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg/22px-Flag_of_India.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/India" title="India">India</a></td>
462<td align="right">21.77</td>
463</tr>
464<tr>
465<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg/22px-Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China" title="People's Republic of China">China</a></td>
466
467<td align="right">8.04</td>
468</tr>
469<tr>
470<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg/22px-Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg.png" width="22" height="11" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Philippines" title="Philippines">Philippines</a></td>
471<td align="right">7.48</td>
472</tr>
473<tr>
474<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/22px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Brazil" title="Brazil">Brazil</a></td>
475<td align="right">7.10</td>
476</tr>
477<tr>
478<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/Flag_of_Ecuador.svg/22px-Flag_of_Ecuador.svg.png" width="22" height="11" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Ecuador" title="Ecuador">Ecuador</a></td>
479
480<td align="right">6.00</td>
481</tr>
482<tr>
483<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.svg/22px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Indonesia" title="Indonesia">Indonesia</a></td>
484<td align="right">5.46</td>
485</tr>
486<tr>
487<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/38/Flag_of_Tanzania.svg/22px-Flag_of_Tanzania.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Tanzania" title="Tanzania">Tanzania</a></td>
488<td align="right">3.50</td>
489</tr>
490<tr>
491<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f2/Flag_of_Costa_Rica.svg/22px-Flag_of_Costa_Rica.svg.png" width="22" height="13" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Costa_Rica" title="Costa Rica">Costa Rica</a></td>
492
493<td align="right">2.08</td>
494</tr>
495<tr>
496<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.svg/22px-Flag_of_Thailand.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Thailand" title="Thailand">Thailand</a></td>
497<td align="right">2.00</td>
498</tr>
499<tr>
500<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/Flag_of_Mexico.svg/22px-Flag_of_Mexico.svg.png" width="22" height="13" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Mexico" title="Mexico">Mexico</a></td>
501<td align="right">1.96</td>
502</tr>
503<tr>
504<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/50/Flag_of_Burundi.svg/22px-Flag_of_Burundi.svg.png" width="22" height="13" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Burundi" title="Burundi">Burundi</a></td>
505
506<td align="right">1.60</td>
507</tr>
508<tr>
509<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ec/Flag_of_Guatemala.svg/22px-Flag_of_Guatemala.svg.png" width="22" height="14" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Guatemala" title="Guatemala">Guatemala</a></td>
510<td align="right">1.57</td>
511</tr>
512<tr>
513<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Flag_of_Vietnam.svg/22px-Flag_of_Vietnam.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Vietnam" title="Vietnam">Vietnam</a></td>
514<td align="right">1.36</td>
515</tr>
516<tr>
517<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/49/Flag_of_Kenya.svg/22px-Flag_of_Kenya.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Kenya" title="Kenya">Kenya</a></td>
518
519<td align="right">1.19</td>
520</tr>
521<tr>
522<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Flag_of_Bangladesh.svg/22px-Flag_of_Bangladesh.svg.png" width="22" height="13" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Bangladesh" title="Bangladesh">Bangladesh</a></td>
523<td align="right">1.00</td>
524</tr>
525<tr>
526<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/82/Flag_of_Honduras.svg/22px-Flag_of_Honduras.svg.png" width="22" height="11" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Honduras" title="Honduras">Honduras</a></td>
527<td align="right">0.91</td>
528</tr>
529<tr>
530<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Flag_of_Egypt.svg/22px-Flag_of_Egypt.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Egypt" title="Egypt">Egypt</a></td>
531
532<td align="right">0.88</td>
533</tr>
534<tr>
535<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea.svg/22px-Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea.svg.png" width="22" height="17" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Papua_New_Guinea" title="Papua New Guinea">Papua New Guinea</a></td>
536<td align="right">0.87</td>
537</tr>
538<tr>
539<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4f/Flag_of_Cameroon.svg/22px-Flag_of_Cameroon.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Cameroon" title="Cameroon">Cameroon</a></td>
540<td align="right">0.86</td>
541</tr>
542<tr>
543<td><span class="flagicon"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/Flag_of_Uganda.svg/22px-Flag_of_Uganda.svg.png" width="22" height="15" class="thumbborder" />&#160;</span><a href="/wiki/Uganda" title="Uganda">Uganda</a></td>
544
545<td align="right">0.62</td>
546</tr>
547<tr>
548<td><b>World total</b></td>
549<td align="right"><b>72.5</b></td>
550</tr>
551<tr>
552<td colspan="2"><i>Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations</i><sup id="cite_ref-fao_2-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-fao-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup></td>
553</tr>
554</table>
555
556<p>Bananas and <a href="/wiki/Plantain" title="Plantain">plantains</a> constitute a major staple <a href="/wiki/Agriculture" title="Agriculture">food crop</a> for millions of people in <a href="/wiki/Developing_country" title="Developing country">developing countries</a>. In most tropical countries, green (unripe) bananas used for <a href="/wiki/Cooking" title="Cooking">cooking</a> represent the main cultivars. Cooking bananas are very similar to <a href="/wiki/Potato" title="Potato">potatoes</a> in how they are used. Both can be <a href="/wiki/Frying" title="Frying">fried</a>, <a href="/wiki/Boiling" title="Boiling">boiled</a>, <a href="/wiki/Baking" title="Baking">baked</a>, or chipped and have similar <a href="/wiki/Taste" title="Taste">taste</a> and texture when served. One green cooking banana has about the same <a href="/wiki/Calorie" title="Calorie">calorie</a> content as one potato.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
557
558<p>In 2003, <a href="/wiki/India" title="India">India</a> led the world in banana production, representing approximately 23% of the worldwide crop, most of which was for domestic consumption. The four leading banana exporting countries were <a href="/wiki/Ecuador" title="Ecuador">Ecuador</a>, <a href="/wiki/Costa_Rica" title="Costa Rica">Costa Rica</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Philippines" title="Philippines">Philippines</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Colombia" title="Colombia">Colombia</a>, which together accounted for about two-thirds of the world's exports, each exporting more than 1 million tons. Ecuador alone provided more than 30% of global banana exports, according to <a href="/wiki/Food_and_Agriculture_Organization" title="Food and Agriculture Organization">FAO</a> statistics.</p>
559<p>The vast majority of producers are small-scale <a href="/wiki/Farmer" title="Farmer">farmers</a> growing the crop either for home consumption or for local markets. Because bananas and <a href="/wiki/Plantain" title="Plantain">plantains</a> will produce fruit year-round, they provide an extremely valuable source of food during the hunger season (that period of time when all the food from the previous harvest has been consumed, and the next harvest is still some time away). It is for these reasons that bananas and <a href="/wiki/Plantain" title="Plantain">plantains</a> are of major importance to <a href="/wiki/Food_security" title="Food security">food security</a>.</p>
560
561<div class="thumb tright">
562<div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Banana_sorting.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/25/Banana_sorting.jpg/180px-Banana_sorting.jpg" width="180" height="122" class="thumbimage" /></a>
563<div class="thumbcaption">
564<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Banana_sorting.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
565Women in <a href="/wiki/Belize" title="Belize">Belize</a> sorting bananas and cutting them from bunches.</div>
566</div>
567</div>
568<p>Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. Most banana farmers receive a low unit price for their produce as <a href="/wiki/Supermarket" title="Supermarket">supermarkets</a> buy enormous quantities and receive a discount for that business. Competition amongst supermarkets has led to reduced margins in recent years which in turn has led to lower prices for growers. <a href="/wiki/Chiquita_Brands_International" title="Chiquita Brands International">Chiquita</a>, <a href="/wiki/Fresh_Del_Monte_Produce" title="Fresh Del Monte Produce">Del Monte</a>, <a href="/wiki/Dole_Food_Company" title="Dole Food Company">Dole</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Fyffes" title="Fyffes">Fyffes</a> grow their own bananas in Ecuador, Colombia, Costa Rica, <a href="/wiki/Guatemala" title="Guatemala">Guatemala</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Honduras" title="Honduras">Honduras</a>. Banana plantations are capital intensive and demand high expertise, so the majority of independent growers are large and wealthy landowners of these countries. This has led to bananas being available as a "<a href="/wiki/Fair_trade" title="Fair trade">fair trade</a>" or <a href="/wiki/Rainforest_Alliance" title="Rainforest Alliance">Rainforest Alliance</a> certified item in some countries.</p>
569
570<p>The banana has an extensive trade history beginning with the founding of the <a href="/wiki/United_Fruit_Company" title="United Fruit Company">United Fruit Company</a> (now Chiquita) at the end of the nineteenth century. For much of the 20th century, bananas and <a href="/wiki/Coffee" title="Coffee">coffee</a> dominated the export economies of <a href="/wiki/Central_America" title="Central America">Central America</a>. In the 1930s, bananas and coffee made up as much as 75% of the region's exports. As late as 1960, the two crops accounted for 67% of the exports from the region. Though the two were grown in similar regions, they tended not to be distributed together. The <a href="/wiki/United_Fruit_Company" title="United Fruit Company">United Fruit Company</a> based its business almost entirely on the banana trade, as the coffee trade proved too difficult for it to control. The term "<a href="/wiki/Banana_republic" title="Banana republic">banana republic</a>" has been broadly applied to most countries in Central America, but from a strict economic perspective only Costa Rica, Honduras, and <a href="/wiki/Panama" title="Panama">Panama</a> were actual "banana republics", countries with economies dominated by the banana trade.</p>
571
572<p>The countries of the <a href="/wiki/European_Union" title="European Union">European Union</a> have traditionally imported many of their bananas from the former European island colonies of the <a href="/wiki/Caribbean" title="Caribbean">Caribbean</a>, paying guaranteed prices above global market rates. As of 2005, these arrangements were in the process of being withdrawn under pressure from other major trading powers, principally the United States. The withdrawal of these indirect subsidies to Caribbean producers is expected to favour the banana producers of Central America, in which American companies have an economic interest.</p>
573<p>The United States has minimal banana production. 14,000 tons of bananas were grown in Hawaii in 2001.<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17"><span>[</span>18<span>]</span></a></sup> Bananas have also been grown in <a href="/wiki/Florida" title="Florida">Florida</a> and southern California.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
574
575<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2>
576<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Early_cultivation">Early cultivation</span></h3>
577<p>The <a href="/wiki/Domestication" title="Domestication">domestication</a> of bananas took place in southeastern Asia. Many species of wild bananas still exist in <a href="/wiki/New_Guinea" title="New Guinea">New Guinea</a>, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Recent archaeological and palaeoenvironmental evidence at <a href="/wiki/Kuk_Swamp" title="Kuk Swamp">Kuk Swamp</a> in the Western Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea suggests that banana cultivation there goes back to at least 5000 <a href="/wiki/Common_Era" title="Common Era">BCE</a>, and possibly to 8000 BCE.<sup id="cite_ref-apscience_0-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-apscience-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> This would make the New Guinean highlands the place where bananas were first domesticated. It is likely that other species of wild bananas were later also domesticated elsewhere in southeastern Asia. Southeast Asia is the region of <a href="/wiki/Center_of_diversity" title="Center of diversity">primary diversity</a> of the banana. Areas of secondary diversity are found in Africa, indicating a long history of banana cultivation in the region.</p>
578
579<div class="thumb tright">
580<div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Bananas_Muslim_world.JPG" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Bananas_Muslim_world.JPG/300px-Bananas_Muslim_world.JPG" width="300" height="162" class="thumbimage" /></a>
581<div class="thumbcaption">
582<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Bananas_Muslim_world.JPG" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
583Actual and probable diffusion of bananas during <a href="/wiki/Muslim_Agricultural_Revolution" title="Muslim Agricultural Revolution">Islamic times</a> (700–1500 AD)<sup id="cite_ref-Watson_19-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Watson-19"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup></div>
584</div>
585</div>
586<p>Some recent discoveries of banana <a href="/wiki/Phytolith" title="Phytolith">phytoliths</a> in <a href="/wiki/Cameroon" title="Cameroon">Cameroon</a> dating to the first millennium BCE<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20"><span>[</span>21<span>]</span></a></sup> have triggered an as yet unresolved debate about the antiquity of banana cultivation in Africa. There is linguistic evidence that bananas were already known in <a href="/wiki/Madagascar" title="Madagascar">Madagascar</a> around that time.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21"><span>[</span>22<span>]</span></a></sup> The earliest evidence of banana cultivation in Africa before these recent discoveries dates to no earlier than late 6th century AD.<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22"><span>[</span>23<span>]</span></a></sup> In this view, bananas were introduced to the east coast of Africa by Muslim Arabs.<sup id="cite_ref-Watson_19-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Watson-19"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
587
588<p>The banana may have been present in isolated locations of the Middle East on the eve of the rise of Islam. There is some textual evidence that the prophet <a href="/wiki/Muhammad" title="Muhammad">Muhammad</a> was familiar with it. The <a href="/wiki/Spread_of_Islam" title="Spread of Islam">spread of Islam</a> was followed by the far reaching diffusion of bananas. There are numerous references to it in Islamic texts (such as poems and <a href="/wiki/Hadith" title="Hadith">hadiths</a>) beginning in the ninth century. By the tenth century the banana appears in texts from <a href="/wiki/Palestine" title="Palestine">Palestine</a> and <a href="/wiki/Egypt" title="Egypt">Egypt</a>. From there it diffused into north Africa and <a href="/wiki/Al-Andalus" title="Al-Andalus">Muslim Iberia</a>. In fact, during the medieval ages, bananas from <a href="/wiki/Granada" title="Granada">Granada</a> were considered amongst the best in the Arab world.<sup id="cite_ref-Watson_19-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Watson-19"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup> In 650, Islamic conquerors brought the banana to Palestine.</p>
589
590<p>Bananas were introduced to the <a href="/wiki/Americas" title="Americas">Americas</a> by Portuguese sailors who brought the fruits from <a href="/wiki/West_Africa" title="West Africa">West Africa</a> in the 1500s.<sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup> The word banana is of West African origin, from the <a href="/wiki/Wolof_language" title="Wolof language">Wolof language</a>, and passed into English via Spanish or Portuguese.<sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24"><span>[</span>25<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
591
592<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Plantation_cultivation">Plantation cultivation</span></h3>
593<p>In the 15th and 16th century, Portuguese colonists started banana plantations in the Atlantic Islands, Brazil, and western Africa.<sup id="cite_ref-history1_25-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-history1-25"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></a></sup> As late as the Victorian Era, bananas were not widely known in Europe, although they were available via merchant trade.<sup id="cite_ref-history1_25-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-history1-25"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Jules_Verne" title="Jules Verne">Jules Verne</a> references bananas with detailed descriptions so as not to confuse readers in his book <i><a href="/wiki/Around_the_World_in_Eighty_Days_(book)" title="Around the World in Eighty Days (book)" class="mw-redirect">Around the World in Eighty Days</a></i> (1872).</p>
594
595<p>In the early 20th century, bananas began forming the basis of large commercial empires, exemplarized by the <a href="/wiki/United_Fruit_Company" title="United Fruit Company">United Fruit Company</a>, which created immense banana plantations especially in Central and South America. These were usually extremely commercially exploitative, and the term "<a href="/wiki/Banana_republic" title="Banana republic">Banana republic</a>" was coined for states like Honduras and Guatemala, representing the fact that "servile dictatorships" were created and abetted by these companies and their political backers, for example in the USA.<sup id="cite_ref-GREED_26-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-GREED-26"><span>[</span>27<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
596<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Cultivation">Cultivation</span></h2>
597<table class="metadata plainlinks ambox ambox-content" style="">
598<tr>
599<td class="mbox-image">
600<div style="width: 52px;"><img alt="Question book-new.svg" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/50px-Question_book-new.svg.png" width="50" height="39" /></div>
601</td>
602<td class="mbox-text" style="">This section <b>does not <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources">cite</a> any <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">references or sources</a></b>.<br />
603
604<small>Please help <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Banana&amp;action=edit" class="external text" rel="nofollow">improve this article</a> by adding citations to <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Reliable_sources" title="Wikipedia:Reliable sources">reliable sources</a>. Unsourced material may be <a href="/wiki/Template:Citation_needed" title="Template:Citation needed">challenged</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability#Burden_of_evidence" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">removed</a>. <i>(October 2008)</i></small></td>
605</tr>
606</table>
607<div class="thumb tleft">
608<div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Inside_a_wild-type_banana.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Inside_a_wild-type_banana.jpg/180px-Inside_a_wild-type_banana.jpg" width="180" height="136" class="thumbimage" /></a>
609
610<div class="thumbcaption">
611<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Inside_a_wild-type_banana.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
612Fruits of <a href="/wiki/Wild_type" title="Wild type">wild-type</a> bananas have numerous large, hard seeds.</div>
613</div>
614</div>
615<div class="thumb tleft">
616<div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Combs.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/46/Combs.jpg/180px-Combs.jpg" width="180" height="121" class="thumbimage" /></a>
617<div class="thumbcaption">
618<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Combs.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
619Banana <a href="/wiki/Corm" title="Corm">corms</a>, used in the propagation of domesticated bananas.</div>
620
621</div>
622</div>
623<p>While the original bananas contained rather large seeds, <a href="/wiki/Polyploidy" title="Polyploidy">triploid</a> (and thus seedless) cultivars have been selected for human consumption. These are propagated <a href="/wiki/Asexual_reproduction" title="Asexual reproduction">asexually</a> from offshoots of the plant. The plant is allowed to produce 2 shoots at a time; a larger one for fruiting immediately and a smaller "sucker" or "follower" that will produce fruit in 6–8 months time. The life of a banana plantation is 25 years or longer, during which time the individual stools or planting sites may move slightly from their original positions as lateral <a href="/wiki/Rhizome" title="Rhizome">rhizome</a> formation dictates.</p>
624<p>Cultivated bananas are <i><a href="/wiki/Parthenocarpy" title="Parthenocarpy">parthenocarpic</a></i>, which makes them sterile and unable to produce viable seeds. Lacking seeds, another form of propagation is required. This normally involves removing and transplanting part of the underground stem (called a corm). Usually this is done by carefully removing a sucker (a vertical shoot that develops from the base of the banana pseudostem) with some roots intact. However, small sympodial corms, representing not yet elongated suckers, are easier to transplant and can be left out of the ground for up to 2 weeks; they require minimal care and can be boxed together for shipment.</p>
625
626<p>Contrary to what is widely believed, it is not actually necessary to include any of the corm or root structure to propagate bananas; severed suckers with no root material attached can be successfully propagated in damp sand, although this takes somewhat longer.</p>
627<p>In some countries, bananas are also commercially propagated by means of tissue culture. This method is preferred since it ensures disease-free planting material. When using vegetative parts such as suckers for propagation, there is a risk of transmitting diseases (especially the devastating <a href="/wiki/Panama_disease" title="Panama disease" class="mw-redirect">Panama disease</a>).</p>
628<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Pests.2C_diseases.2C_and_natural_disasters">Pests, diseases, and natural disasters</span></h2>
629<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/wiki/List_of_banana_and_plantain_diseases" title="List of banana and plantain diseases">List of banana and plantain diseases</a></div>
630<div class="thumb tright">
631<div class="thumbinner" style="width:142px;"><a href="/wiki/File:BananasBlueBagStLucia.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e4/BananasBlueBagStLucia.jpg/140px-BananasBlueBagStLucia.jpg" width="140" height="203" class="thumbimage" /></a>
632<div class="thumbcaption">
633<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:BananasBlueBagStLucia.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
634Banana bunches are sometimes encased in plastic bags for protection. The bags may be coated with <a href="/wiki/Pesticide" title="Pesticide">pesticides</a>.</div>
635
636</div>
637</div>
638<div class="thumb tright">
639<div class="thumbinner" style="width:142px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Banana_trees.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9e/Banana_trees.jpg/140px-Banana_trees.jpg" width="140" height="212" class="thumbimage" /></a>
640<div class="thumbcaption">
641<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Banana_trees.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
642Inspecting bananas for <a href="/wiki/Fruit_fly" title="Fruit fly">fruit flies</a></div>
643</div>
644</div>
645<p>While in no danger of outright extinction, the most common edible banana cultivar 'Cavendish' (extremely popular in Europe and the Americas) could become unviable for large-scale cultivation in the next 10–20 years. Its predecessor 'Gros Michel', discovered in the 1820s, has already suffered this fate. Like almost all bananas, it lacks genetic diversity, which makes it vulnerable to diseases, which threaten both commercial cultivation and the small-scale subsistence farming.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-28" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup> Some commentators have further remarked that those variants which could replace what much of the world considers a "typical banana" are so different that most people would not consider them the same fruit, and blame the decline of the banana on monogenetic cultivation driven by short-term commercial exploitation motives.<sup id="cite_ref-GREED_26-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-GREED-26"><span>[</span>27<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
646
647<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Major_diseases">Major diseases</span></h3>
648<table class="metadata plainlinks ambox ambox-content" style="">
649<tr>
650<td class="mbox-image">
651<div style="width: 52px;"><img alt="Question book-new.svg" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/50px-Question_book-new.svg.png" width="50" height="39" /></div>
652</td>
653<td class="mbox-text" style="">This section <b>does not <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources">cite</a> any <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">references or sources</a></b>.<br />
654<small>Please help <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Banana&amp;action=edit" class="external text" rel="nofollow">improve this article</a> by adding citations to <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Reliable_sources" title="Wikipedia:Reliable sources">reliable sources</a>. Unsourced material may be <a href="/wiki/Template:Citation_needed" title="Template:Citation needed">challenged</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability#Burden_of_evidence" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">removed</a>. <i>(October 2008)</i></small></td>
655
656</tr>
657</table>
658<p>Major afflictions of bananas include:</p>
659<ul>
660<li><a href="/wiki/Fusarium_oxysporum" title="Fusarium oxysporum">Panama Disease</a> (Race 1): fusarium wilt (a <a href="/wiki/Soil" title="Soil">soil</a> <a href="/wiki/Fungus" title="Fungus">fungus</a>). The fungus enters the <a href="/wiki/Plant" title="Plant">plants</a> through the <a href="/wiki/Root" title="Root">roots</a> and moves up with water into the trunk and leaves, producing gels and gums. These plug and cut off the flow of water and <a href="/wiki/Nutrient" title="Nutrient">nutrients</a>, causing the plant to <a href="/wiki/Wilting" title="Wilting">wilt</a>. Prior to 1960 almost all commercial banana production centered on the cultivar '<a href="/wiki/Gros_Michel_banana" title="Gros Michel banana">Gros Michel</a>', which was highly susceptible to fusarium wilt and collapse, exposing the rest of the plant to lethal amounts of sunlight.<sup id="cite_ref-barker_29-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-barker-29"><span>[</span>30<span>]</span></a></sup> The cultivar 'Cavendish' was chosen as a replacement for 'Gros Michel' because out of the resistant cultivars it was viewed as producing the highest quality <a href="/wiki/Fruit" title="Fruit">fruit</a>. However, more care is required for shipping the 'Cavendish' banana, and its quality compared to 'Gros Michel' is debated.</li>
661
662</ul>
663<p>However, according to current references, a deadly form of Panama disease is infecting the world's Cavendish banana plants. All are genetically identical, which causes problems when it comes to disease resistance. However, researchers are experimenting with hundreds of feral varieties to find out which one(s) are resistant.<sup id="cite_ref-barker_29-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-barker-29"><span>[</span>30<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
664<ul>
665<li>Tropical Race 4: a reinvigorated strain of Panama disease first discovered in 1993. This is a virulent form of fusarium wilt that has wiped out 'Cavendish' in several southeast Asian countries. It has yet to reach the Americas; however, soil fungi can easily be carried on <a href="/wiki/Boot" title="Boot">boots</a>, <a href="/wiki/Clothing" title="Clothing">clothing</a>, or <a href="/wiki/Tool" title="Tool">tools</a>. This is how Tropical Race 4 moves from one plantation to another and is its most likely route into Latin America. The Cavendish cultivar is highly susceptible to TR4, and over time, Cavendish is almost certain to be eliminated from commercial production by this disease. Unfortunately, the only known defense to TR4 is genetic resistance.</li>
666<li><a href="/wiki/Black_sigatoka" title="Black sigatoka">Black Sigatoka</a>: a fungal leaf spot disease first observed in <a href="/wiki/Fiji" title="Fiji">Fiji</a> in 1963 or 1964. Black Sigatoka (also known as Black Leaf Streak) has spread to banana plantations throughout the tropics due to infected banana leaves being used as packing material. It affects all of the main cultivars of bananas and <a href="/wiki/Plantain" title="Plantain">plantains</a>, impeding <a href="/wiki/Photosynthesis" title="Photosynthesis">photosynthesis</a> by turning parts of their leaves black, and eventually killing the entire leaf. Being starved for energy, fruit production falls by 50% or more, and the bananas that do grow suffer premature <a href="/wiki/Ripening" title="Ripening">ripening</a>, making them unsuitable for <a href="/wiki/Export" title="Export">export</a>. The fungus has shown ever increasing resistance to fungicidal treatment, with the current expense for treating 1 hectare exceeding <a href="/wiki/United_States_dollar" title="United States dollar">$</a>1000 per year. In addition to the financial expense there is the question of how long such intensive spraying can be justified environmentally. Several resistant cultivars of banana have been developed, but none has yet received wide scale commercial acceptance due to taste and texture issues.</li>
667
668<li>Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV): this <a href="/wiki/Virus" title="Virus">virus</a> is spread from plant to plant by <a href="/wiki/Aphid" title="Aphid">aphids</a>. It causes stunting of the leaves resulting in a "bunched" appearance. Generally, a banana plant infected with the virus will not set fruit, although mild strains exist in many areas which do allow for some fruit production. These mild strains are often mistaken for malnourishment, or a disease other than BBTV. There is no cure for BBTV, however its effect can be minimised by planting only tissue cultured plants (In-vitro propagation), controlling the aphids, and immediately removing and destroying any plant from the field that shows signs of the disease.</li>
669</ul>
670<p>Even though it is no longer viable for large scale cultivation, 'Gros Michel' is not extinct and is still grown in areas where Panama disease is not found. Likewise, "Cavendish" is in no danger of extinction, but it may leave the shelves of the supermarkets for good if diseases make it impossible to supply the global market. It is unclear if any existing cultivar can replace 'Cavendish' on a scale needed to fill current demand, so various hybridisation and genetic engineering programs are working on creating a disease-resistant, mass-market banana.</p>
671<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="In_Australia">In Australia</span></h4>
672<div class="thumb tright">
673<div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Larry1.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/60/Larry1.jpg/180px-Larry1.jpg" width="180" height="143" class="thumbimage" /></a>
674<div class="thumbcaption">
675<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Larry1.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
676Banana plants destroyed after <a href="/wiki/Cyclone_Larry" title="Cyclone Larry">Cyclone Larry</a> in 2006</div>
677
678</div>
679</div>
680<p>Australia is relatively free of plant diseases and therefore prohibits imports. When <a href="/wiki/Cyclone_Larry" title="Cyclone Larry">Cyclone Larry</a> wiped out Australia's domestic banana crop in 2006, bananas became relatively expensive, due to both low supply domestically and the existence of laws prohibiting banana imports. Prices have since fallen as production has reverted back to a steady rate.</p>
681<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="In_East_Africa">In East Africa</span></h4>
682<p>Most bananas grown worldwide are used for local consumption. In the tropics, bananas, especially cooking bananas, represent a major source of food, as well as a major source of income for smallholder farmers. It is in the East African highlands that bananas reach their greatest importance as a staple food crop. In countries such as <a href="/wiki/Uganda" title="Uganda">Uganda</a>, <a href="/wiki/Burundi" title="Burundi">Burundi</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Rwanda" title="Rwanda">Rwanda</a> per capita consumption has been estimated at 450&#160;kg per year, the highest in the world. Ugandans use the same word "matooke" to describe both banana and food.</p>
683
684<p>In the past, the banana was a highly sustainable crop with a long plantation life and stable yields year round. However with the arrival of the <a href="/wiki/Black_sigatoka" title="Black sigatoka">Black sigatoka</a> fungus, banana production in eastern Africa has fallen by over 40%. For example, during the 1970s, Uganda produced 15 to 20 tonnes of bananas per hectare. Today, production has fallen to only 6 tonnes per hectare.</p>
685<p>The situation has started to improve as new disease resistant cultivars have been developed by the <a href="/wiki/International_Institute_of_Tropical_Agriculture" title="International Institute of Tropical Agriculture">International Institute of Tropical Agriculture</a> and NARO such as the FHIA-17 (known in Uganda as the Kabana 3). These new cultivars taste different from the traditionally grown banana which has slowed their acceptance by local farmers. However, by adding <a href="/wiki/Mulch" title="Mulch">mulch</a> and animal <a href="/wiki/Manure" title="Manure">manure</a> to the soil around the base of the banana plant, these new cultivars have substantially increased yields in the areas where they have been tried.</p>
686<p>The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and NARO, funded by the <a href="/wiki/Rockefeller_Foundation" title="Rockefeller Foundation">Rockefeller Foundation</a> and <a href="/wiki/Consultative_Group_on_International_Agricultural_Research" title="Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research">CGIAR</a> have started trials for <a href="/wiki/Genetic_engineering" title="Genetic engineering">genetically modified</a> banana plants that are resistant to both Black sigatoka and banana weevils. It is developing cultivars specifically for smallholder or subsistence farmers.</p>
687
688<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Health_benefits">Health benefits</span></h2>
689<p>Along with other fruits and vegetables, consumption of bananas were associated with a reduced risk of <a href="/wiki/Colorectal_cancer" title="Colorectal cancer">colorectal cancer</a><sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30"><span>[</span>31<span>]</span></a></sup> and in women, <a href="/wiki/Breast_cancer" title="Breast cancer">breast cancer</a><sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31"><span>[</span>32<span>]</span></a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Renal_cell_carcinoma" title="Renal cell carcinoma">renal cell carcinoma</a><sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32"><span>[</span>33<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
690
691<p>Individuals with a <a href="/wiki/Latex_allergy" title="Latex allergy">latex allergy</a> may experience a reaction to bananas.<sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33"><span>[</span>34<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
692<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Fibre">Fibre</span></h2>
693<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Textiles">Textiles</span></h3>
694<p>The banana plant has long been a source of fibre for high quality textiles. In Japan, the cultivation of banana for clothing and household use dates back to at least the 13th century. In the Japanese system, leaves and shoots are cut from the plant periodically to ensure softness. The harvested shoots must first be boiled in <a href="/wiki/Lye" title="Lye">lye</a> to prepare the fibres for the making of the yarn. These banana shoots produce fibres of varying degrees of softness, yielding yarns and textiles with differing qualities for specific uses. For example, the outermost fibres of the shoots are the coarsest, and are suitable for tablecloths, whereas the softest innermost fibres are desirable for <a href="/wiki/Kimono" title="Kimono">kimono</a> and <a href="/wiki/Hakama" title="Hakama">kamishimo</a>. This traditional Japanese banana cloth making process requires many steps, all performed by hand.<sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-34"><span>[</span>35<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
695
696<p>In another system employed in Nepal, the trunk of the banana plant is harvested instead, small pieces of which are subjected to a softening process, mechanical extraction of the fibres, bleaching, and drying. After that, the fibres are sent to the <a href="/wiki/Kathmandu_Valley" title="Kathmandu Valley">Kathmandu Valley</a> for the making of high end rugs with a textural quality similar to silk. These banana fibre rugs are woven by the traditional Nepalese hand-knotted methods, and are sold <a href="/wiki/Rugmark" title="Rugmark">RugMark certified</a>.</p>
697<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Paper">Paper</span></h3>
698<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Banana_paper" title="Banana paper">Banana paper</a></div>
699<p>Banana fibre is also used in the production of banana paper. Banana paper is used in two different senses: to refer to a <a href="/wiki/Paper" title="Paper">paper</a> made from the <a href="/wiki/Bark" title="Bark">bark</a> of the banana plant, mainly used for artistic purposes, or paper made from banana fiber, obtained from an industrialized process, from the stem and the non usable fruits. This paper can be either hand-made or made by industrialized machine.</p>
700
701<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Storage_and_transport">Storage and transport</span></h2>
702<div class="thumb tright">
703<div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><a href="/wiki/File:BananaRoom.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/BananaRoom.jpg/180px-BananaRoom.jpg" width="180" height="123" class="thumbimage" /></a>
704<div class="thumbcaption">
705<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:BananaRoom.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
706Banana storage room, <a href="/wiki/Salt_Lake_City" title="Salt Lake City">Salt Lake City</a>, 1913</div>
707</div>
708</div>
709<div class="thumb tright">
710<div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Banana_Lumpers.JPG" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/7/76/Banana_Lumpers.JPG/180px-Banana_Lumpers.JPG" width="180" height="270" class="thumbimage" /></a>
711<div class="thumbcaption">
712<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Banana_Lumpers.JPG" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
713Transfer of boxes from refrigerated truck in <a href="/wiki/Cold_chain" title="Cold chain">cold chain</a></div>
714
715</div>
716</div>
717<p>In the current world marketing system, bananas are grown in the tropics. The fruit therefore has to be transported over long distances and storage is necessary. To gain maximum life, bunches are harvested before the fruit is fully mature. The fruit is carefully handled, transported quickly to the seaboard, cooled, and shipped under sophisticated refrigeration. The basis of this procedure is to prevent the bananas producing ethylene which is the natural ripening agent of the fruit. This sophisticated technology allows storage and transport for 3–4 weeks at 13 degrees Celsius. On arrival at the destination, the bananas are held at about 17 degrees Celsius and treated with a low concentration of ethylene. After a few days, the fruit has begun to ripen and it is distributed for retail sale. It is important to note that unripe bananas can not be held in the home refrigerator as they suffer from the cold. After ripening some bananas can be held for a few days at home. They can be stored indefinitely frozen, then eaten like an <a href="/wiki/Ice_pop" title="Ice pop">ice pop</a> or cooked as a banana mush.</p>
718<p>Recent studies have suggested<sup id="cite_ref-35" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-35"><span>[</span>36<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36"><span>[</span>37<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37"><span>[</span>38<span>]</span></a></sup> that the presence of carbon dioxide (which is produced by the fruit) extends the life and the addition of an ethylene absorbent further extends the life even at high temperatures. This effect can be exploited by packing the fruit in a polyethylene bag and including an ethylene absorbent, <a href="/wiki/Potassium_permanganate" title="Potassium permanganate">potassium permanganate</a>, on an inert carrier. The bag is then sealed with a band or string. This treatment has been shown to more than double the life of the bananas at a range of temperatures and can give a life of up to 3–4 weeks without the need for refrigeration.</p>
719
720<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Usage_in_culture">Usage in culture</span></h2>
721<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Peels">Peels</span></h3>
722<p>The depiction of a person slipping on a banana peel has been a staple of <a href="/wiki/Physical_comedy" title="Physical comedy">physical comedy</a> for generations. An 1898 comedy recording features a popular character of the time, "<a href="/wiki/Cal_Stewart" title="Cal Stewart">Cal Stewart</a>", claiming to describe his own such incident, saying:<sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
723<blockquote>
724<p>Now I don't think much of the man that throws a banana peelin' on the sidewalk, and I don't think much of the banana peel that throws a man on the sidewalk neither ... my foot hit the bananer peelin' and I went up in the air, and I come down ker-plunk, jist as I was pickin' myself up a little boy come runnin' across the street ... he says, "Oh mister, won't you please do that agin? My little brother didn't see you do it."</p>
725
726</blockquote>
727<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Arts">Arts</span></h3>
728<ul>
729<li>The poet <a href="/wiki/Matsuo_Bash%C5%8D" title="Matsuo Basho">Basho</a> is named after the Japanese word for a banana plant. The "basho" planted in his garden by a grateful student became a source of inspiration to his poetry, as well as a symbol of his life and home.<sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39"><span>[</span>40<span>]</span></a></sup></li>
730<li>The song <a href="/wiki/Yes!_We_Have_No_Bananas" title="Yes! We Have No Bananas">Yes! We Have No Bananas</a> was written by <a href="/wiki/Frank_Silver" title="Frank Silver">Frank Silver</a> and <a href="/wiki/Irving_Cohn" title="Irving Cohn">Irving Cohn</a> and originally released in 1923; for many decades, it was the best-selling sheet music in history. Since then the song has been rerecorded several times and has been particularly popular during banana shortages.</li>
731
732<li>The <a href="/wiki/Japanese_literature" title="Japanese literature">Japanese</a> <a href="/wiki/Novelist" title="Novelist" class="mw-redirect">novelist</a> <a href="/wiki/Banana_Yoshimoto" title="Banana Yoshimoto">Banana Yoshimoto</a> (real name: Mihoko Yoshimoto) changed her name because she liked banana flowers.</li>
733</ul>
734<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Symbols">Symbols</span></h3>
735<p>Bananas are also humorously used as a <a href="/wiki/Phallus" title="Phallus">phallic symbol</a> due to similarities in size and shape. This is typified by the artwork of the <a href="/wiki/The_Velvet_Underground_%26_Nico" title="The Velvet Underground &amp; Nico">debut album</a> of <a href="/wiki/The_Velvet_Underground" title="The Velvet Underground">The Velvet Underground</a>, which features a banana on the front cover, yet on the original LP version, the design allowed the listener to 'peel' this banana to find a pink, phallic structure on the inside.</p>
736
737<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Gallery">Gallery</span></h2>
738<table class="gallery" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">
739<tr>
740<td>
741<div class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px;">
742<div class="thumb" style="padding: 13px 0; width: 150px;">
743<div style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; width: 120px;"><a href="/wiki/File:IMG_banana-offering.JPG" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b6/IMG_banana-offering.JPG/90px-IMG_banana-offering.JPG" width="90" height="120" /></a></div>
744</div>
745<div class="gallerytext">
746<p>Traditional offerings of bananas and coconut at a <a href="/wiki/Nat_(spirit)" title="Nat (spirit)">Nat</a> shrine in <a href="/wiki/Myanmar" title="Myanmar" class="mw-redirect">Myanmar</a>.</p>
747
748</div>
749</div>
750</td>
751<td>
752<div class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px;">
753<div class="thumb" style="padding: 38px 0; width: 150px;">
754<div style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; width: 120px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Bananavarieties.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/de/Bananavarieties.jpg/120px-Bananavarieties.jpg" width="120" height="69" /></a></div>
755</div>
756<div class="gallerytext">
757<p>Certain banana cultivars turn red or purplish instead of yellow as they ripen.</p>
758</div>
759</div>
760</td>
761<td>
762<div class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px;">
763<div class="thumb" style="padding: 33px 0; width: 150px;">
764
765<div style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; width: 120px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Bannana2500px.JPG" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Bannana2500px.JPG/120px-Bannana2500px.JPG" width="120" height="80" /></a></div>
766</div>
767<div class="gallerytext">
768<p>Bananas are often sold in bunches, as shown above.</p>
769</div>
770</div>
771</td>
772<td>
773<div class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px;">
774<div class="thumb" style="padding: 33px 0; width: 150px;">
775<div style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; width: 120px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Banana_pudding,_homemade.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/46/Banana_pudding%2C_homemade.jpg/120px-Banana_pudding%2C_homemade.jpg" width="120" height="80" /></a></div>
776</div>
777<div class="gallerytext">
778<p><a href="/wiki/Banana_pudding" title="Banana pudding">Banana pudding</a>.</p>
779
780</div>
781</div>
782</td>
783</tr>
784<tr>
785<td>
786<div class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px;">
787<div class="thumb" style="padding: 13px 0; width: 150px;">
788<div style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; width: 120px;"><a href="/wiki/File:S_F-E-CAMERON_Egypt_2006_feb_01679.JPG" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/S_F-E-CAMERON_Egypt_2006_feb_01679.JPG/84px-S_F-E-CAMERON_Egypt_2006_feb_01679.JPG" width="84" height="120" /></a></div>
789</div>
790<div class="gallerytext">
791<p>Banana plant, <a href="/wiki/Luxor" title="Luxor">Luxor</a>, <a href="/wiki/Egypt" title="Egypt">Egypt</a> - Bananas are continually cropped, fruits from higher in the <a href="/wiki/Inflorescence" title="Inflorescence">inflorescence</a> being taken before the lower part opens.</p>
792
793</div>
794</div>
795</td>
796<td>
797<div class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px;">
798<div class="thumb" style="padding: 13px 0; width: 150px;">
799<div style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; width: 120px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Luxor,_Banana_Island,_Banana_Tree,_Egypt,_Oct_2004.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e4/Luxor%2C_Banana_Island%2C_Banana_Tree%2C_Egypt%2C_Oct_2004.jpg/82px-Luxor%2C_Banana_Island%2C_Banana_Tree%2C_Egypt%2C_Oct_2004.jpg" width="82" height="120" /></a></div>
800</div>
801<div class="gallerytext">
802<p><a href="/wiki/Banana_tree" title="Banana tree" class="mw-redirect">Banana tree</a>.</p>
803</div>
804</div>
805</td>
806<td>
807<div class="gallerybox" style="width: 155px;">
808
809<div class="thumb" style="padding: 28px 0; width: 150px;">
810<div style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; width: 120px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Nasi_lemak_01a.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Nasi_lemak_01a.jpg/120px-Nasi_lemak_01a.jpg" width="120" height="90" /></a></div>
811</div>
812<div class="gallerytext">
813<p>Banana leaves can be used for packaging food, such as with the <a href="/wiki/Malaysia" title="Malaysia">Malaysian</a> dish '<a href="/wiki/Nasi_lemak" title="Nasi lemak">nasi lemak</a>'.</p>
814</div>
815</div>
816</td>
817</tr>
818</table>
819<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2>
820
821<ul>
822<li><a href="/wiki/Banana_boat" title="Banana boat">Banana boat</a></li>
823<li><a href="/wiki/Banana_messenger" title="Banana messenger">Banana messenger</a></li>
824<li><a href="/wiki/Banana_oil" title="Banana oil" class="mw-redirect">Banana oil</a></li>
825<li><a href="/wiki/Banana_Pancake_Trail" title="Banana Pancake Trail">Banana Pancake Trail</a></li>
826<li><a href="/wiki/Banana_production_in_Iceland" title="Banana production in Iceland">Banana production in Iceland</a></li>
827<li><a href="/wiki/Banana_republic" title="Banana republic">Banana republic</a></li>
828<li><a href="/wiki/Bananadine" title="Bananadine">Bananadine</a></li>
829<li><a href="/wiki/Ensete" title="Ensete">Enset</a> (<i>false banana</i>)</li>
830
831<li><a href="/wiki/Plantain" title="Plantain">Plantain</a></li>
832<li>Song: <a href="/wiki/Day-O_(The_Banana_Boat_Song)" title="Day-O (The Banana Boat Song)">Day-O (The Banana Boat Song)</a></li>
833<li>Song: <a href="/wiki/Yes!_We_Have_No_Bananas" title="Yes! We Have No Bananas">Yes! We Have No Bananas</a></li>
834</ul>
835<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Culinary_usage_2">Culinary usage</span></h3>
836<ul>
837<li><a href="/wiki/Banana_beer" title="Banana beer">Banana beer</a></li>
838<li><a href="/wiki/Banana_bread" title="Banana bread">Banana bread</a></li>
839<li><a href="/wiki/Banana_chips" title="Banana chips">Banana chips</a></li>
840
841<li><a href="/wiki/Bananas_Foster" title="Bananas Foster">Bananas Foster</a></li>
842<li><a href="/wiki/Banana_ketchup" title="Banana ketchup">Banana ketchup</a></li>
843<li><a href="/wiki/Banana_pudding" title="Banana pudding">Banana pudding</a></li>
844<li><a href="/wiki/Banana_sauce" title="Banana sauce">Banana sauce</a></li>
845<li><a href="/wiki/Banana_split" title="Banana split">Banana split</a></li>
846<li><a href="/wiki/Banania" title="Banania">Banania</a></li>
847<li><a href="/wiki/B%C3%A1nh_chu%E1%BB%91i" title="Bánh chu?i">Bánh chu?i</a></li>
848<li><a href="/wiki/Cream_pie" title="Cream pie">Cream pie</a></li>
849<li><a href="/wiki/Frozen_bananas" title="Frozen bananas">Frozen bananas</a></li>
850
851<li><a href="/wiki/Pisang_goreng" title="Pisang goreng">Pisang goreng</a></li>
852<li><a href="/wiki/Tonto_(beverage)" title="Tonto (beverage)">Tonto (beverage)</a></li>
853</ul>
854<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Footnotes">Footnotes</span></h2>
855<div class="references-small references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width:30em; column-width:30em;">
856<ol class="references">
857<li id="cite_note-apscience-0">^ <a href="#cite_ref-apscience_0-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-apscience_0-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation web">"<a href="http://apscience.org.au/projects/PBF_02_3/pbf_02_3.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Tracing antiquity of banana cultivation in Papua New Guinea</a>". The Australia &amp; Pacific Science Foundation<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://apscience.org.au/projects/PBF_02_3/pbf_02_3.htm" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://apscience.org.au/projects/PBF_02_3/pbf_02_3.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2007-09-18</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Tracing+antiquity+of+banana+cultivation+in+Papua+New+Guinea&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=The+Australia+%26+Pacific+Science+Foundation&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fapscience.org.au%2Fprojects%2FPBF_02_3%2Fpbf_02_3.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
858
859<li id="cite_note-1"><b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></b> <a href="http://agroforestry.net/tti/Musa-banana-plantain.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">agroforestry.net</a></li>
860<li id="cite_note-fao-2">^ <a href="#cite_ref-fao_2-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-fao_2-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation web">"<a href="http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567" class="external text" rel="nofollow">FAOSTAT: ProdSTAT: Crops</a>". <a href="/wiki/Food_and_Agriculture_Organization" title="Food and Agriculture Organization">Food and Agriculture Organization</a>. 2005<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 09-12-2006</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=FAOSTAT%3A++ProdSTAT%3A+Crops&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BFood+and+Agriculture+Organization%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Ffaostat.fao.org%2Fsite%2F567%2FDesktopDefault.aspx%3FPageID%3D567&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
861
862<li id="cite_note-3"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">"<a href="http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/banana.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Banana from ''Fruits of Warm Climates'' by Julia Morton</a>". Hort.purdue.edu<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/banana.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/banana.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-04-16</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Banana+from+%27%26%2339%3BFruits+of+Warm+Climates%27%26%2339%3B+by+Julia+Morton&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Hort.purdue.edu&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hort.purdue.edu%2Fnewcrop%2Fmorton%2Fbanana.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
863<li id="cite_note-4"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b> <a href="http://www.rhs.org.uk/Learning/Publications/pubs/garden0502/" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><i>Yes, we have more bananas</i></a> published in the <a href="/wiki/Royal_Horticultural_Society" title="Royal Horticultural Society">Royal Horticultural Society</a> Journals, May 2002</li>
864
865<li id="cite_note-5"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b> <i>See</i> Greenearth, Inc., <a href="http://www.bananaplants.net/banananinfo.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Banana Plant Growing Info</a>. Retrieved 2008.12.20.</li>
866<li id="cite_note-6"><b><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></b> <span class="citation news">Angolo, A (2008-05-15). "<a href="http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/classified-odd/05/13/08/banana-plant-five-hearts-instant-hit-negros-occ" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Banana plant with five hearts is instant hit in Negros Occ</a>". <a href="/wiki/ABS-CBN_Broadcasting_Corporation" title="ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation">ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation</a><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/classified-odd/05/13/08/banana-plant-five-hearts-instant-hit-negros-occ" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/classified-odd/05/13/08/banana-plant-five-hearts-instant-hit-negros-occ</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2008-05-17</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Banana+plant+with+five+hearts+is+instant+hit+in+Negros+Occ&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Angolo&amp;rft.aufirst=A&amp;rft.au=Angolo%2C%26%2332%3BA&amp;rft.date=2008-05-15&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BABS-CBN+Broadcasting+Corporation%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.abs-cbnnews.com%2Fclassified-odd%2F05%2F13%2F08%2Fbanana-plant-five-hearts-instant-hit-negros-occ&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
867
868<li id="cite_note-7"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b> <span class="citation book">Solomon, C (1998). <i><a href="http://www.asiafood.org/glossary_1.cfm?alpha=B&amp;wordid=3219&amp;startno=1&amp;endno=25" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Encyclopedia of Asian Food</a></i> (Periplus ed.). Australia: New Holland Publishers<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.asiafood.org/glossary_1.cfm?alpha=B&amp;wordid=3219&amp;startno=1&amp;endno=25" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.asiafood.org/glossary_1.cfm?alpha=B&amp;wordid=3219&amp;startno=1&amp;endno=25</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2008-05-17</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Encyclopedia+of+Asian+Food&amp;rft.aulast=Solomon&amp;rft.aufirst=C&amp;rft.au=Solomon%2C%26%2332%3BC&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.edition=Periplus&amp;rft.place=Australia&amp;rft.pub=New+Holland+Publishers&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.asiafood.org%2Fglossary_1.cfm%3Falpha%3DB%26wordid%3D3219%26startno%3D1%26endno%3D25&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
869<li id="cite_note-8"><b><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></b> James P. Smith, <i>Vascular Plant Families</i>. Mad River Press, 1977.</li>
870
871<li id="cite_note-9"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b> Liberty Hyde Bailey, <i>The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture</i>. 1916. <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=uZMDAAAAMAAJ&amp;pg=PA2076" class="external text" rel="nofollow">p. 2076</a></li>
872<li id="cite_note-keppel44-10">^ <a href="#cite_ref-keppel44_10-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-keppel44_10-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> Dan Keppel, <i>Banana</i>, Hudson Street Press, 2008; p. 44.</li>
873<li id="cite_note-11"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b> Bailey, pp. 2076–2079.</li>
874
875<li id="cite_note-12"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">"<a href="http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/banana.html#Other%20Uses" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Banana</a>". Hort.purdue.edu<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/banana.html#Other%20Uses" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/banana.html#Other%20Uses</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-04-16</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Banana&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Hort.purdue.edu&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hort.purdue.edu%2Fnewcrop%2Fmorton%2Fbanana.html%23Other%2520Uses&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
876<li id="cite_note-13"><b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b> <i>Plant Breeding Abstracts</i>, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, 1949, p.162</li>
877<li id="cite_note-14"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b> <i>Healing Power of Foods: Nature's Prescription of Common Diseases</i>, Pustak Mahal, 2004, <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/8122307485" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 8122307485</a>, p.49</li>
878
879<li id="cite_note-15"><b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Moser, Simone; Thomas Müller, Marc-Olivier Ebert, Steffen Jockusch, Nicholas J. Turro, Bernhard Kräutler (2008). "Blue luminescence of ripening bananas". <i>Angewandte Chemie International Edition</i> <b>47</b> (46): 8954–8957. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<span class="neverexpand"><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1002%2Fanie.200803189" class="external text" rel="nofollow">10.1002/anie.200803189</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Blue+luminescence+of+ripening+bananas&amp;rft.jtitle=Angewandte+Chemie+International+Edition&amp;rft.aulast=Moser&amp;rft.aufirst=Simone&amp;rft.au=Moser%2C%26%2332%3BSimone&amp;rft.au=Thomas+M%C3%BCller%2C+Marc-Olivier+Ebert%2C+Steffen+Jockusch%2C+Nicholas+J.+Turro%2C+Bernhard+Kr%C3%A4utler&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.volume=47&amp;rft.issue=46&amp;rft.pages=8954%E2%80%938957&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1002%2Fanie.200803189&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
880<li id="cite_note-16"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">"<a href="http://kitchenwonders.blogspot.com/2006/05/pachakka-green-plantain-thoran_22.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Blogger: Aanmelden om te lezen</a>". Kitchenwonders.blogspot.com<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://kitchenwonders.blogspot.com/2006/05/pachakka-green-plantain-thoran_22.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://kitchenwonders.blogspot.com/2006/05/pachakka-green-plantain-thoran_22.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-04-16</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Blogger%3A+Aanmelden+om+te+lezen&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Kitchenwonders.blogspot.com&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fkitchenwonders.blogspot.com%2F2006%2F05%2Fpachakka-green-plantain-thoran_22.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
881
882<li id="cite_note-17"><b><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">"<a href="http://www.ipmcenters.org/cropprofiles/docs/hibananas.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Crop Profile for Bananas in Hawaii</a>". Ipmcenters.org<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.ipmcenters.org/cropprofiles/docs/hibananas.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.ipmcenters.org/cropprofiles/docs/hibananas.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-04-16</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Crop+Profile+for+Bananas+in+Hawaii&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Ipmcenters.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ipmcenters.org%2Fcropprofiles%2Fdocs%2Fhibananas.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
883<li id="cite_note-18"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b> California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc., <a href="http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/banana.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Banana Fruit Facts</a>. Retrieved 2008.12.30.</li>
884<li id="cite_note-Watson-19">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Watson_19-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Watson_19-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Watson_19-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> Watson, p. 54</li>
885
886<li id="cite_note-20"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">"<a href="http://coconutstudio.com/bananas%20edmund%20Hather4.doc" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Tracking the banana: Significance to Early Agriculture</a>"<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://coconutstudio.com/bananas%20edmund%20Hather4.doc" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://coconutstudio.com/bananas%20edmund%20Hather4.doc</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Tracking+the+banana%3A+Significance+to+Early+Agriculture&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fcoconutstudio.com%2Fbananas%2520edmund%2520Hather4.doc&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
887<li id="cite_note-21"><b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">"<a href="http://www.upress.uni-kassel.de/online/frei/978-3-89958-116-4.volltext.frei.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Herkunft, Diversität und Züchtung der Banane und kultivierter Zitrusarten (<i>Origin, diversity and breeding of banana and plantain (Musa spp.))</i></a>". Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.upress.uni-kassel.de/online/frei/978-3-89958-116-4.volltext.frei.pdf" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.upress.uni-kassel.de/online/frei/978-3-89958-116-4.volltext.frei.pdf</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Herkunft%2C+Diversit%C3%A4t+und+Z%C3%BCchtung+der+Banane+und+kultivierter+Zitrusarten+%28%27%27Origin%2C+diversity+and+breeding+of+banana+and+plantain+%28Musa+spp.%29%29%27%27&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Journal+of+Agriculture+and+Rural+Development+in+the+Tropics+and+Subtropics&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.upress.uni-kassel.de%2Fonline%2Ffrei%2F978-3-89958-116-4.volltext.frei.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
888
889<li id="cite_note-22"><b><a href="#cite_ref-22">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">"<a href="http://www.inibap.org/pdf/phytoliths_en.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Africa's earliest bananas?</a>". Journal of Archeological Science. 2005-06-28<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.inibap.org/pdf/phytoliths_en.pdf" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.inibap.org/pdf/phytoliths_en.pdf</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Africa%27s+earliest+bananas%3F&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2005-06-28&amp;rft.pub=Journal+of+Archeological+Science&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inibap.org%2Fpdf%2Fphytoliths_en.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span><sup class="noprint Inline-Template"><span title="&#160;since December 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Linkrot" title="Wikipedia:Linkrot">dead link</a></i>]</span></sup></li>
890<li id="cite_note-23"><b><a href="#cite_ref-23">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">"<a href="http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/Musa/index.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Bananas and plantains</a>". Botgard.ucla.edu<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/Musa/index.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/Musa/index.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-04-16</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Bananas+and+plantains&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Botgard.ucla.edu&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.botgard.ucla.edu%2Fhtml%2Fbotanytextbooks%2Feconomicbotany%2FMusa%2Findex.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
891
892<li id="cite_note-24"><b><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">"<a href="http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=banana&amp;searchmode=none" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Online Etymology Dictionary: banana</a>"<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=banana&amp;searchmode=none" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=banana&amp;searchmode=none</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 02-11-2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Online+Etymology+Dictionary%3A+banana&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.etymonline.com%2Findex.php%3Fsearch%3Dbanana%26searchmode%3Dnone&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
893<li id="cite_note-history1-25">^ <a href="#cite_ref-history1_25-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-history1_25-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation web">"<a href="http://www.phora-sotoby.com/history.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Phora Ltd. - History of Banana</a>". Phora-sotoby.com<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.phora-sotoby.com/history.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.phora-sotoby.com/history.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-04-16</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Phora+Ltd.+-+History+of+Banana&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Phora-sotoby.com&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.phora-sotoby.com%2Fhistory.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
894
895<li id="cite_note-GREED-26">^ <a href="#cite_ref-GREED_26-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-GREED_26-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <i>Big-business greed killing the banana</i> - <i>Independent</i>, via <i><a href="/wiki/The_New_Zealand_Herald" title="The New Zealand Herald">The New Zealand Herald</a></i>, Saturday 24 May 2008, Page A19</li>
896<li id="cite_note-27"><b><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></b> <span class="citation news">"<a href="http://www.newscientist.com/channel/earth/dn9152-a-future-with-no-bananas.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">A future with no bananas?</a>". <a href="/wiki/New_Scientist" title="New Scientist">New Scientist</a>. 2006-05-13<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.newscientist.com/channel/earth/dn9152-a-future-with-no-bananas.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.newscientist.com/channel/earth/dn9152-a-future-with-no-bananas.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 09-12-2006</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=A+future+with+no+bananas%3F&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2006-05-13&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BNew+Scientist%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.newscientist.com%2Fchannel%2Fearth%2Fdn9152-a-future-with-no-bananas.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
897
898<li id="cite_note-28"><b><a href="#cite_ref-28">^</a></b> <span class="citation news">Montpellier, Emile Frison (2003-02-08). "<a href="http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg17723813.300-rescuing-the-banana.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Rescuing the banana</a>". <a href="/wiki/New_Scientist" title="New Scientist">New Scientist</a><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg17723813.300-rescuing-the-banana.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg17723813.300-rescuing-the-banana.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 09-12-2006</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Rescuing+the+banana&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Montpellier&amp;rft.aufirst=Emile+Frison&amp;rft.au=Montpellier%2C%26%2332%3BEmile+Frison&amp;rft.date=2003-02-08&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BNew+Scientist%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.newscientist.com%2Farticle%2Fmg17723813.300-rescuing-the-banana.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
899<li id="cite_note-barker-29">^ <a href="#cite_ref-barker_29-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-barker_29-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> Barker, C. L. <i>Conservation: Peeling away.</i> National Geographic Magazine, November 2008.</li>
900
901<li id="cite_note-30"><b><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Deneo-Pellegrini, H; De Stefani E; Ronco A (1996). "Vegetables, fruits, and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study from Uruguay". <i>Nutrition &amp; Cancer</i> <b>25</b> (3): 297-304. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect">PMID</a> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8771572" class="external text" rel="nofollow">8771572</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Vegetables%2C+fruits%2C+and+risk+of+colorectal+cancer%3A+a+case-control+study+from+Uruguay&amp;rft.jtitle=Nutrition+%26+Cancer&amp;rft.aulast=Deneo-Pellegrini&amp;rft.aufirst=H&amp;rft.au=Deneo-Pellegrini%2C%26%2332%3BH&amp;rft.au=De+Stefani+E%3B+Ronco+A&amp;rft.date=1996&amp;rft.volume=25&amp;rft.issue=3&amp;rft.pages=297-304&amp;rft_id=info:pmid/8771572&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
902<li id="cite_note-31"><b><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Zhang, CX; et al. (2009). "Greater vegetable and fruit intake is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer among Chinese women". <i>International Journal of Cancer</i> <b>125</b> (1): 181-8. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect">PMID</a> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19358284" class="external text" rel="nofollow">19358284</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Greater+vegetable+and+fruit+intake+is+associated+with+a+lower+risk+of+breast+cancer+among+Chinese+women&amp;rft.jtitle=International+Journal+of+Cancer&amp;rft.aulast=Zhang&amp;rft.aufirst=CX&amp;rft.au=Zhang%2C%26%2332%3BCX&amp;rft.au=et+al.&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.volume=125&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.pages=181-8&amp;rft_id=info:pmid/19358284&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
903
904<li id="cite_note-32"><b><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Rashidkhani, B; Lindblad P; Wolk A (2005). "Fruits, vegetables and risk of renal cell carcinoma: a prospective study of Swedish women". <i>International Journal of Cancer</i> <b>113</b> (3): 451-5. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect">PMID</a> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15455348" class="external text" rel="nofollow">15455348</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Fruits%2C+vegetables+and+risk+of+renal+cell+carcinoma%3A+a+prospective+study+of+Swedish+women&amp;rft.jtitle=International+Journal+of+Cancer&amp;rft.aulast=Rashidkhani&amp;rft.aufirst=B&amp;rft.au=Rashidkhani%2C%26%2332%3BB&amp;rft.au=Lindblad+P%3B+Wolk+A&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.volume=113&amp;rft.issue=3&amp;rft.pages=451-5&amp;rft_id=info:pmid/15455348&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
905<li id="cite_note-33"><b><a href="#cite_ref-33">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">Taylor, JS; Erkek E (2004). "Latex allergy: diagnosis and management". <i>Dermatological Therapy</i> <b>17</b> (4): 289-301. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect">PMID</a> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15327474" class="external text" rel="nofollow">15327474</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Latex+allergy%3A+diagnosis+and+management&amp;rft.jtitle=Dermatological+Therapy&amp;rft.aulast=Taylor&amp;rft.aufirst=JS&amp;rft.au=Taylor%2C%26%2332%3BJS&amp;rft.au=Erkek+E&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.volume=17&amp;rft.issue=4&amp;rft.pages=289-301&amp;rft_id=info:pmid/15327474&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
906
907<li id="cite_note-34"><b><a href="#cite_ref-34">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">"<a href="http://www.kougei.or.jp/english/crafts/0130/f0130.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Traditional Crafts of Japan - Kijoka Banana Fiber Cloth</a>". Association for the Promotion of Traditional Craft Industries<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.kougei.or.jp/english/crafts/0130/f0130.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.kougei.or.jp/english/crafts/0130/f0130.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 11-12-2006</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Traditional+Crafts+of+Japan+-+Kijoka+Banana+Fiber+Cloth&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Association+for+the+Promotion+of+Traditional+Craft+Industries&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kougei.or.jp%2Fenglish%2Fcrafts%2F0130%2Ff0130.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
908<li id="cite_note-35"><b><a href="#cite_ref-35">^</a></b> Scott, KJ, McGlasson WB and Roberts EA (1970) Potassium Permanganate as an Ethylene Absorbent in Polyethylene Bags to Delay the Ripening of Bananas During Storage. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 110, 237–240.</li>
909<li id="cite_note-36"><b><a href="#cite_ref-36">^</a></b> Scott KJ, Blake, JR, Stracha n, G Tugwell, BL and McGlasson WB (1971) Transport of Bananas at Ambient Temperatures using Polyethylene Bags. Tropical cha Agriculture (Trinidad ) 48, 163–165.</li>
910
911<li id="cite_note-37"><b><a href="#cite_ref-37">^</a></b> Scott, KJ and Gandanegara, S (1974) Effect of Temperature on the Storage Life of bananas Held in Polyethylene Bags with an Ethylene Absorbent. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad ) 51,23–26.</li>
912<li id="cite_note-38"><b><a href="#cite_ref-38">^</a></b> <span class="citation web">Stewart, Cal. "<a href="http://www.archive.org/details/CalStewart_part2" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Collected Works of Cal Stewart part 2</a>". <i>Uncle Josh in a Department Store (1898)</i>. The Internet Archive<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.archive.org/details/CalStewart_part2" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.archive.org/details/CalStewart_part2</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-05-12</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Collected+Works+of+Cal+Stewart+part+2&amp;rft.atitle=Uncle+Josh+in+a+Department+Store+%281898%29&amp;rft.aulast=Stewart&amp;rft.aufirst=Cal&amp;rft.au=Stewart%2C%26%2332%3BCal&amp;rft.pub=The+Internet+Archive&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.archive.org%2Fdetails%2FCalStewart_part2&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
913<li id="cite_note-39"><b><a href="#cite_ref-39">^</a></b> Matsuo Basho: the Master Haiku Poet, Kodansha Europe, <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0870115537" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 0870115537</a></li>
914
915</ol>
916</div>
917<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2>
918<table class="metadata plainlinks mbox-small" style="border:1px solid #aaa; background-color:#f9f9f9;">
919<tr>
920<td class="mbox-image"><a href="http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Special:Search/Banana" title="Search Wiktionary"><img alt="Search Wiktionary" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/Wiktionary-logo-en.svg/40px-Wiktionary-logo-en.svg.png" width="40" height="44" /></a></td>
921<td class="mbox-text" style="">Look up <i><b><a href="http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Special:Search/banana" class="extiw" title="wiktionary:Special:Search/banana">banana</a></b></i> in <a href="/wiki/Wiktionary" title="Wiktionary">Wiktionary</a>, the free dictionary.</td>
922</tr>
923</table>
924<table class="metadata plainlinks mbox-small" style="border:1px solid #aaa; background-color:#f9f9f9;">
925
926<tr>
927<td class="mbox-image"><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:Search/Banana" title="Search Wikimedia Commons"><img alt="Search Wikimedia Commons" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/40px-Commons-logo.svg.png" width="40" height="54" /></a></td>
928<td class="mbox-text" style=""><a href="/wiki/Wikimedia_Commons" title="Wikimedia Commons">Wikimedia Commons</a> has media related to: <i><b><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:Search/Banana" class="extiw" title="commons:Special:Search/Banana">Banana</a></b></i></td>
929</tr>
930</table>
931<table class="metadata plainlinks mbox-small" style="border:1px solid #aaa; background-color:#f9f9f9;">
932<tr>
933<td class="mbox-image"><a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Special:Search/Banana" title="Search Wikisource"><img alt="Search Wikisource" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/40px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png" width="40" height="42" /></a></td>
934<td class="mbox-text" style=""><a href="/wiki/Wikisource" title="Wikisource">Wikisource</a> has the text of the <a href="/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica_Eleventh_Edition" title="Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition">1911 Encyclopædia Britannica</a> article <i><b><a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Banana" class="extiw" title="wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Banana">Banana</a></b></i>.</td>
935
936</tr>
937</table>
938<ul>
939<li><a href="http://www.iita.org/cms/details/banana_project_details.aspx?zoneid=65&amp;articleid=223" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Banana overview</a> - Banana details by IITA</li>
940<li>FAO. <a href="http://www.fao.org/es/esc/en/20953/20987/highlight_28367en.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Bananas Commodity notes: Final results of the 2003 season</a>, 2004<sup class="noprint Inline-Template"><span title="&#160;since December 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Linkrot" title="Wikipedia:Linkrot">dead link</a></i>]</span></sup></li>
941<li>Denham, T., Haberle, S. G., Lentfer, C., Fullagar, R., Field, J., Porch, N., Therin, M., Winsborough B., and Golson, J. Multi-disciplinary Evidence for the Origins of Agriculture from 6950-6440 Cal BP at Kuk Swamp in the Highlands of New Guinea. <i>Science</i>, June 2003 issue.</li>
942
943<li>Skidmore, T., Smith, P. - <i>Modern Latin America</i> (5th edition), (2001) New York: <a href="/wiki/Oxford_University_Press" title="Oxford University Press">Oxford University Press</a>)</li>
944<li><span class="citation Journal">Editors (2006). "Banana fiber rugs". <i><a href="/wiki/Dwell_(magazine)" title="Dwell (magazine)">Dwell</a></i> <b>6</b> (7): 44.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Banana+fiber+rugs&amp;rft.jtitle=%5B%5BDwell+%28magazine%29%7CDwell%5D%5D&amp;rft.aulast=Editors&amp;rft.au=Editors&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.volume=6&amp;rft.issue=7&amp;rft.pages=44&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span> Brief mention of banana fibre rugs</li>
945<li><span class="citation Journal">Leibling, Robert W. and Pepperdine, Donna (2006). "Natural remedies of Arabia". <i><a href="/wiki/Saudi_Aramco_World" title="Saudi Aramco World">Saudi Aramco World</a></i> <b>57</b> (5): 14.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Natural+remedies+of+Arabia&amp;rft.jtitle=%5B%5BSaudi+Aramco+World%5D%5D&amp;rft.aulast=Leibling%2C+Robert+W.+and+Pepperdine%2C+Donna&amp;rft.au=Leibling%2C+Robert+W.+and+Pepperdine%2C+Donna&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.volume=57&amp;rft.issue=5&amp;rft.pages=14&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Banana"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span> Banana etymology, banana flour.</li>
946
947<li>Watson, Andrew. <i>Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world</i>, New York: <a href="/wiki/Cambridge_University_Press" title="Cambridge University Press">Cambridge University Press</a>, 1983.</li>
948</ul>
949<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span></h2>
950<ul>
951<li><a href="/wiki/Dan_Koeppel" title="Dan Koeppel">Dan Koeppel</a>, <i>Banana: The Fate of the Fruit that Changed the World</i>, <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781594630385" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 9781594630385</a>, <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=cSoVd-o8PmoC&amp;dq=Banana:+The+Fate+of+the+Fruit+that+Changed+the+World" class="external autonumber" rel="nofollow">[1]</a></li>
952
953<li>Dan Koeppel, <a href="/wiki/The_New_York_Times" title="The New York Times">The New York Times</a> article of June 18, 2008, <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/18/opinion/18koeppel.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Yes, We Will Have No Bananas</a></li>
954<li><a href="/wiki/Harriet_Lamb" title="Harriet Lamb">Harriet Lamb</a>, "Fighting The Banana Wars and other Fairtrade Battles", <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781846040832" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 978-1-84-604083-2</a></li>
955</ul>
956<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span></h2>
957<ul>
958<li><a href="http://www.dmoz.org/Science/Agriculture/Horticulture/Fruits/Banana//" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Banana</a> at the <a href="/wiki/Open_Directory_Project" title="Open Directory Project">Open Directory Project</a></li>
959
960</ul>
961<p><span id="interwiki-es-fa"></span> <span id="interwiki-ru-fa"></span> <span id="interwiki-te-fa"></span> <span id="interwiki-uk-fa"></span></p>
962
963
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973<div class="printfooter">
974Retrieved from "<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana</a>"</div>
975                        <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'><div id="mw-normal-catlinks"><a href="/wiki/Special:Categories" title="Special:Categories">Categories</a>: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Bananas" title="Category:Bananas">Bananas</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Inflorescence_vegetables" title="Category:Inflorescence vegetables">Inflorescence vegetables</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Fiber_plants" title="Category:Fiber plants">Fiber plants</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Staple_foods" title="Category:Staple foods">Staple foods</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Tropical_agriculture" title="Category:Tropical agriculture">Tropical agriculture</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Tropical_fruit" title="Category:Tropical fruit">Tropical fruit</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Flora_of_Jamaica" title="Category:Flora of Jamaica">Flora of Jamaica</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Puerto_Rican_ingredients" title="Category:Puerto Rican ingredients">Puerto Rican ingredients</a></span></div><div id="mw-hidden-catlinks" class="mw-hidden-cats-hidden">Hidden categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:All_articles_with_dead_external_links" title="Category:All articles with dead external links">All articles with dead external links</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Articles_with_dead_external_links_from_December_2008" title="Category:Articles with dead external links from December 2008">Articles with dead external links from December 2008</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Wikipedia_move-protected_pages" title="Category:Wikipedia move-protected pages">Wikipedia move-protected pages</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Wikipedia_protected_pages_without_expiry" title="Category:Wikipedia protected pages without expiry">Wikipedia protected pages without expiry</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Articles_to_be_expanded_from_June_2008" title="Category:Articles to be expanded from June 2008">Articles to be expanded from June 2008</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:All_articles_to_be_expanded" title="Category:All articles to be expanded">All articles to be expanded</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:All_articles_with_unsourced_statements" title="Category:All articles with unsourced statements">All articles with unsourced statements</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Articles_with_unsourced_statements_from_February_2009" title="Category:Articles with unsourced statements from February 2009">Articles with unsourced statements from February 2009</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Articles_needing_additional_references_from_June_2009" title="Category:Articles needing additional references from June 2009">Articles needing additional references from June 2009</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:All_articles_needing_additional_references" title="Category:All articles needing additional references">All articles needing additional references</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Articles_with_obsolete_information" title="Category:Articles with obsolete information">Articles with obsolete information</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/wiki/Category:Articles_needing_additional_references_from_October_2008" title="Category:Articles needing additional references from October 2008">Articles needing additional references from October 2008</a></span></div></div>                        <!-- end content -->
976
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983                <h5>Views</h5>
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985
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987       
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989                                 <li id="ca-talk"><a href="/wiki/Talk:Banana" title="Discussion about the content page [t]" accesskey="t">Discussion</a></li>
990                                 <li id="ca-viewsource"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Banana&amp;action=edit" title="This page is protected.&#10;You can view its source [e]" accesskey="e">View source</a></li>
991                                 <li id="ca-history"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Banana&amp;action=history" title="Past versions of this page [h]" accesskey="h">History</a></li>                       </ul>
992                </div>
993
994        </div>
995        <div class="portlet" id="p-personal">
996                <h5>Personal tools</h5>
997                <div class="pBody">
998                        <ul lang="en" xml:lang="en">
999                                <li id="pt-optin-try"><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:UsabilityInitiativeOptIn&amp;from=Banana" title="Try out new features" class="no-text-transform">Try Beta</a></li>
1000                                <li id="pt-login"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:UserLogin&amp;returnto=Banana" title="You are encouraged to log in; however, it is not mandatory. [o]" accesskey="o">Log in / create account</a></li>
1001
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1067                                <li class="interwiki-ar"><a href="http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D9%88%D8%B2">???????</a></li>
1068                                <li class="interwiki-an"><a href="http://an.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musa_%C3%97_paradisiaca">Aragonés</a></li>
1069
1070                                <li class="interwiki-ast"><a href="http://ast.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pl%C3%A1tanu">Asturianu</a></li>
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1072                                <li class="interwiki-az"><a href="http://az.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banan">Az?rbaycan</a></li>
1073                                <li class="interwiki-bn"><a href="http://bn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A6%95%E0%A6%B2%E0%A6%BE_(%E0%A6%AB%E0%A6%B2)">?????</a></li>
1074                                <li class="interwiki-zh-min-nan"><a href="http://zh-min-nan.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kin-chio">Bân-lâm-gú</a></li>
1075                                <li class="interwiki-bo"><a href="http://bo.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%BD%84%E0%BD%84%E0%BC%8B%E0%BD%A3%E0%BD%82">???????</a></li>
1076
1077                                <li class="interwiki-bs"><a href="http://bs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana">Bosanski</a></li>
1078                                <li class="interwiki-bg"><a href="http://bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%BD">?????????</a></li>
1079                                <li class="interwiki-ca"><a href="http://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana">Català</a></li>
1080                                <li class="interwiki-cs"><a href="http://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ban%C3%A1n">Cesky</a></li>
1081                                <li class="interwiki-cy"><a href="http://cy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana">Cymraeg</a></li>
1082                                <li class="interwiki-da"><a href="http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banan">Dansk</a></li>
1083
1084                                <li class="interwiki-de"><a href="http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bananen">Deutsch</a></li>
1085                                <li class="interwiki-dv"><a href="http://dv.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DE%8B%DE%AE%DE%82%DE%B0%DE%86%DE%AC%DE%94%DE%AE">??????????</a></li>
1086                                <li class="interwiki-nv"><a href="http://nv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hashk%CA%BCaan">Diné bizaad</a></li>
1087                                <li class="interwiki-et"><a href="http://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banaan">Eesti</a></li>
1088                                <li class="interwiki-el"><a href="http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%9C%CF%80%CE%B1%CE%BD%CE%AC%CE%BD%CE%B1">????????</a></li>
1089                                <li class="interwiki-es"><a href="http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musa_%C3%97_paradisiaca">Español</a></li>
1090
1091                                <li class="interwiki-eo"><a href="http://eo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banano">Esperanto</a></li>
1092                                <li class="interwiki-eu"><a href="http://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana">Euskara</a></li>
1093                                <li class="interwiki-fa"><a href="http://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D9%88%D8%B2">?????</a></li>
1094                                <li class="interwiki-fr"><a href="http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banane">Français</a></li>
1095                                <li class="interwiki-gd"><a href="http://gd.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana">Gàidhlig</a></li>
1096                                <li class="interwiki-gl"><a href="http://gl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana">Galego</a></li>
1097
1098                                <li class="interwiki-gan"><a href="http://gan.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%A6%99%E8%95%89">??</a></li>
1099                                <li class="interwiki-ko"><a href="http://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EB%B0%94%EB%82%98%EB%82%98">???</a></li>
1100                                <li class="interwiki-hr"><a href="http://hr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana">Hrvatski</a></li>
1101                                <li class="interwiki-io"><a href="http://io.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banano">Ido</a></li>
1102                                <li class="interwiki-id"><a href="http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pisang">Bahasa Indonesia</a></li>
1103                                <li class="interwiki-ia"><a href="http://ia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana">Interlingua</a></li>
1104
1105                                <li class="interwiki-is"><a href="http://is.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banani">Íslenska</a></li>
1106                                <li class="interwiki-it"><a href="http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana">Italiano</a></li>
1107                                <li class="interwiki-he"><a href="http://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%91%D7%A0%D7%A0%D7%94">?????</a></li>
1108                                <li class="interwiki-jv"><a href="http://jv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gedhang">Basa Jawa</a></li>
1109                                <li class="interwiki-kn"><a href="http://kn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B2%AC%E0%B2%BE%E0%B2%B3%E0%B3%86_%E0%B2%B9%E0%B2%A3%E0%B3%8D%E0%B2%A3%E0%B3%81">?????</a></li>
1110                                <li class="interwiki-pam"><a href="http://pam.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagin">Kapampangan</a></li>
1111
1112                                <li class="interwiki-ka"><a href="http://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%83%91%E1%83%90%E1%83%9C%E1%83%90%E1%83%9C%E1%83%98">???????</a></li>
1113                                <li class="interwiki-rw"><a href="http://rw.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umuneke">Kinyarwanda</a></li>
1114                                <li class="interwiki-sw"><a href="http://sw.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ndizi">Kiswahili</a></li>
1115                                <li class="interwiki-ht"><a href="http://ht.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bannann">Kreyòl ayisyen</a></li>
1116                                <li class="interwiki-la"><a href="http://la.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musa_(genus)">Latina</a></li>
1117                                <li class="interwiki-lv"><a href="http://lv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ban%C4%81ns">Latviešu</a></li>
1118
1119                                <li class="interwiki-lt"><a href="http://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bananas">Lietuviu</a></li>
1120                                <li class="interwiki-jbo"><a href="http://jbo.wikipedia.org/wiki/badna">Lojban</a></li>
1121                                <li class="interwiki-lmo"><a href="http://lmo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musa">Lumbaart</a></li>
1122                                <li class="interwiki-hu"><a href="http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ban%C3%A1n">Magyar</a></li>
1123                                <li class="interwiki-mk"><a href="http://mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0">??????????</a></li>
1124                                <li class="interwiki-mg"><a href="http://mg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akondro">Malagasy</a></li>
1125
1126                                <li class="interwiki-ml"><a href="http://ml.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B4%B5%E0%B4%BE%E0%B4%B4">??????</a></li>
1127                                <li class="interwiki-arz"><a href="http://arz.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D9%88%D8%B2">????</a></li>
1128                                <li class="interwiki-ms"><a href="http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pisang">Bahasa Melayu</a></li>
1129                                <li class="interwiki-mn"><a href="http://mn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D0%B0%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BB">??????</a></li>
1130                                <li class="interwiki-nah"><a href="http://nah.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zapal%C5%8Dtl">Nahuatl</a></li>
1131                                <li class="interwiki-nl"><a href="http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banaan_(fruit)">Nederlands</a></li>
1132
1133                                <li class="interwiki-cr"><a href="http://cr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Min_kauakashkuat">Nehiyawewin / ???????</a></li>
1134                                <li class="interwiki-ja"><a href="http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%90%E3%83%8A%E3%83%8A">???</a></li>
1135                                <li class="interwiki-no"><a href="http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bananer">?Norsk (bokmål)?</a></li>
1136                                <li class="interwiki-nn"><a href="http://nn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banan">?Norsk (nynorsk)?</a></li>
1137                                <li class="interwiki-km"><a href="http://km.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%9E%85%E1%9F%81%E1%9E%80">?????????</a></li>
1138                                <li class="interwiki-pl"><a href="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banan">Polski</a></li>
1139
1140                                <li class="interwiki-pt"><a href="http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana">Português</a></li>
1141                                <li class="interwiki-ro"><a href="http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banan%C4%83">Româna</a></li>
1142                                <li class="interwiki-qu"><a href="http://qu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puquchi">Runa Simi</a></li>
1143                                <li class="interwiki-ru"><a href="http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%BD">???????</a></li>
1144                                <li class="interwiki-sco"><a href="http://sco.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bananae">Scots</a></li>
1145                                <li class="interwiki-scn"><a href="http://scn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana">Sicilianu</a></li>
1146
1147                                <li class="interwiki-si"><a href="http://si.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B6%9A%E0%B7%99%E0%B7%83%E0%B7%99%E0%B6%BD%E0%B7%8A">?????</a></li>
1148                                <li class="interwiki-simple"><a href="http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana">Simple English</a></li>
1149                                <li class="interwiki-sk"><a href="http://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ban%C3%A1n">Slovencina</a></li>
1150                                <li class="interwiki-sl"><a href="http://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bananovec">Slovenšcina</a></li>
1151                                <li class="interwiki-sr"><a href="http://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0">?????? / Srpski</a></li>
1152                                <li class="interwiki-sh"><a href="http://sh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana">Srpskohrvatski / ??????????????</a></li>
1153
1154                                <li class="interwiki-su"><a href="http://su.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cau">Basa Sunda</a></li>
1155                                <li class="interwiki-fi"><a href="http://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banaani">Suomi</a></li>
1156                                <li class="interwiki-sv"><a href="http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banan">Svenska</a></li>
1157                                <li class="interwiki-tl"><a href="http://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saging">Tagalog</a></li>
1158                                <li class="interwiki-ta"><a href="http://ta.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%AE%B5%E0%AE%BE%E0%AE%B4%E0%AF%88">?????</a></li>
1159                                <li class="interwiki-te"><a href="http://te.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B0%85%E0%B0%B0%E0%B0%9F%E0%B0%BF">??????</a></li>
1160
1161                                <li class="interwiki-th"><a href="http://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%A5%E0%B9%89%E0%B8%A7%E0%B8%A2">???</a></li>
1162                                <li class="interwiki-to"><a href="http://to.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusi">lea faka-Tonga</a></li>
1163                                <li class="interwiki-tr"><a href="http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muz">Türkçe</a></li>
1164                                <li class="interwiki-uk"><a href="http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%BD">??????????</a></li>
1165                                <li class="interwiki-ur"><a href="http://ur.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DA%A9%DB%8C%D9%84%D8%A7">????</a></li>
1166                                <li class="interwiki-vi"><a href="http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chu%E1%BB%91i">Ti?ng Vi?t</a></li>
1167
1168                                <li class="interwiki-vls"><a href="http://vls.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bananne">West-Vlams</a></li>
1169                                <li class="interwiki-war"><a href="http://war.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saging">Winaray</a></li>
1170                                <li class="interwiki-yi"><a href="http://yi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%91%D7%90%D7%A0%D7%90%D7%A0%D7%A2">??????</a></li>
1171                                <li class="interwiki-zh-yue"><a href="http://zh-yue.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%95%89">??</a></li>
1172                                <li class="interwiki-bat-smg"><a href="http://bat-smg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banans">Žemaiteška</a></li>
1173                                <li class="interwiki-zh"><a href="http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%A6%99%E8%95%89">??</a></li>
1174
1175                        </ul>
1176                </div>
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1184
1185                                        <li id="lastmod"> This page was last modified on 10 November 2009 at 13:13.</li>
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